Severe winter weather::Severe weather


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Severe winter weather

Heavy snowfall


Damage caused by Lake Storm "Aphid" in October 2006

When extratropical cyclones deposit heavy, wet snow with a snow-water equivalent (SWE) ratio of between 6:1 and 12:1 and a weight in excess of 10 pounds per square foot (~50 kg/m2)<ref name="Historic snowfall for the Niagara Frontier">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> piles onto trees or electricity lines, significant damage may occur on a scale usually associated with strong tropical cyclones.<ref name="Historic Lake Effect Snow Storm of October 12–13, 2006">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> An avalanche can occur with a sudden thermal or mechanical impact on snow that has accumulated on a mountain, which causes the snow to rush downhill suddenly. Preceding an avalanche is a phenomenon known as an avalanche wind caused by the approaching avalanche itself, which adds to its destructive potential.<ref name="Glossary2009g">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Large amounts of snow which accumulate on top of man-made structures can lead to structural failure.<ref name="Gershon2009">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> During snowmelt, acidic precipitation which previously fell in the snow pack is released and harms marine life.<ref name="Samuel1995">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref>

Lake-effect snow is produced in the winter in the shape of one or more elongated bands. This occurs when cold winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water, providing energy and picking up water vapor which freezes and is deposited on the lee shores.<ref name="Glossary2009h">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> For more information on this effect see the main article.

Conditions within blizzards often include large quantities of blowing snow and strong winds which may significantly reduce visibility. Reduced viability of personnel on foot may result in extended exposure to the blizzard and increase the chance of becoming lost. The strong winds associated with blizzards create wind chill that can result in frostbites and hypothermia. The strong winds present in blizzards are capable of damaging plants and may cause power outrages, frozen pipes, and cut off fuel lines<ref name="Blizzards">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Strong extratropical cyclones

{{#invoke:main|main}} The precipitation pattern of Nor'easters is similar to other mature extratropical storms. Nor'easters can cause heavy rain or snow, either within their comma-head precipitation pattern or along their trailing cold or stationary front. Nor'easters can occur at any time of the year but are mostly known for their presence in the winter season.<ref name="disc3">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Severe European windstorms are often characterized by heavy precipitation as well.<ref name="EuroWind"/>

Ice storm


Trees that have been destroyed by an ice storm.

Ice storms are also known as a Silver storm, referring to the color of the freezing precipitation.<ref name=""/> Ice storms are caused by liquid precipitation which freezes upon cold surfaces and leads to the gradual development of a thickening layer of ice.<ref name="">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The accumulations of ice during the storm can be extremely destructive. Trees and vegetation can be destroyed and in turn may bring down power lines, causing the loss of heat and communication lines.<ref name="Glossary2009i">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Roofs of buildings and automobiles may be severely damaged. Gas pipes can become frozen or even damaged causing gas leaks. Avalanches may develop due to the extra weight of the present. Visibility can be reduce dramatically. The aftermath of an ice storm may result in severe flooding due to sudden thawing, with large quantities of displaced water, especially near lakes, rivers, and bodies of water.<ref name="WinterStormsp">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Severe weather sections
Intro  Terminology  Causes  Categories  High winds  Hail  Heavy rainfall and flooding  Severe winter weather  Heat and drought  References  

Severe winter weather
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