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{{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}} Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} sēmantikós, "significant")<ref></ref><ref>The word is derived from the Ancient Greek word σημαντικός{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (semantikos), "related to meaning, significant", from σημαίνω{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} semaino, "to signify, to indicate", which is from σῆμα{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} sema, "sign, mark, token". The plural is used in analogy with words similar to physics, which was in the neuter plural in Ancient Greek and meant "things relating to nature".</ref> is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs, and symbols, and what they stand for; their denotation. Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used for understanding human expression through language. Other forms of semantics include the semantics of programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology.

The word semantics itself denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics. In linguistics, it is the study of the interpretation of signs or symbols used in agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts.<ref name="Neurath1955" /> Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, and proxemics have semantic (meaningful) content, and each comprises several branches of study. In written language, things like paragraph structure and punctuation bear semantic content; other forms of language bear other semantic content.<ref name="Neurath1955">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others. Independently, semantics is also a well-defined field in its own right, often with synthetic properties.<ref>Cruse, Alan; Meaning and Language: An introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, Chapter 1, Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics, 2004; Kearns, Kate; Semantics, Palgrave MacMillan 2000; Cruse, D. A.; Lexical Semantics, Cambridge, MA, 1986.</ref> In the philosophy of language, semantics and reference are closely connected. Further related fields include philology, communication, and semiotics. The formal study of semantics can therefore be manifold and complex.

Semantics contrasts with syntax, the study of the combinatorics of units of a language (without reference to their meaning), and pragmatics, the study of the relationships between the symbols of a language, their meaning, and the users of the language.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Semantics as a field of study also has significant ties to various representational theories of meaning including truth theories of meaning, coherence theories of meaning, and correspondence theories of meaning. Each of these is related to the general philosophical study of reality and the representation of meaning.

Semantics sections
Intro  Linguistics  Montague grammar  Dynamic turn in semantics  Prototype theory  Theories in semantics  Computer science  Psychology  See also  References   External links   

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