::Second Triumvirate


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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Multiple image|render}} The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Octavius (Octavian, Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 26 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which is viewed as marking the end of the Roman Republic. The Triumvirate existed for two five-year terms, covering the period 43 BC to 33 BC. Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate,<ref>The First Triumvirate was a political alliance between Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus; see Adrian Goldsworthy (2008). Caesar: Life of a Colossus, New Haven, CT:Yale University Press (ISBN 9780300126891, p. 164, and Suetonius [Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus]| (2003). The Twelve Caesars, with an introduction by Michael Grant [Robert Graves, Transl.], Rev. Ed. London, UK:Penguin Books, p. 21{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Verify source |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[verification needed] }} (ISBN 0140449213), [1], accessed 18 April 2015.</ref><ref>The First lasted from approximately 59 BC to Crassus' defeat by the Parthians in 53 BC. See Arnold Joseph Toynbee (2014). "Julius Caesar (Roman ruler): The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul," and "Julius Caesar (Roman ruler): Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 BC," at Encyclopedia Britannica (online), [2] and [3], accessed 18 April 2015.</ref> the Second Triumvirate was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls.

Second Triumvirate sections
Intro  Origin and nature  Proscriptions  Philippi  Perusine war and Sextus Pompey  Fall of Lepidus  War between Octavian and Antony  Further reading  See also  Notes and citations  Literature cited  

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