::Sculpture

::concepts



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The Dying Gaul, or The Capitoline Gaul <ref>[1]</ref> a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BCE Capitoline Museums, Rome
Michelangelo's Moses, (c. 1513–1515), housed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome. The sculpture was commissioned in 1505 by Pope Julius II for his tomb.
Assyrian lamassu gate guardian from Khorsabad, c. 721–800 BCE
Netsuke of tigress with two cubs, mid-19th century Japan, ivory with shell inlay
The Angel of the North by Antony Gormley, 1998

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led to an almost complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast.

Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, and often represents the majority of the surviving works (other than pottery) from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished almost entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, and this has been lost.<ref name="artmuseums.harvard.edu">"Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity" September 2007 to January 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum</ref>

Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an expression of religion or politics. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as well as many in South America and Africa.

The Western tradition of sculpture began in Ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith. The revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, and the presentation of found objects as finished art works.


Sculpture sections
Intro  Types of sculpture  Purposes and subjects  Materials and techniques  Social status of sculptors  Anti-sculpture movements  History of sculpture  Modernism  Conservation  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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The Dying Gaul, or The Capitoline Gaul <ref>[1]</ref> a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BCE Capitoline Museums, Rome
Michelangelo's Moses, (c. 1513–1515), housed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome. The sculpture was commissioned in 1505 by Pope Julius II for his tomb.
Assyrian lamassu gate guardian from Khorsabad, c. 721–800 BCE
Netsuke of tigress with two cubs, mid-19th century Japan, ivory with shell inlay
The Angel of the North by Antony Gormley, 1998

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), in stone, metal, ceramics, wood and other materials but, since modernism, shifts in sculptural process led to an almost complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast.

Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, and often represents the majority of the surviving works (other than pottery) from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished almost entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, and this has been lost.<ref name="artmuseums.harvard.edu">"Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity" September 2007 to January 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum</ref>

Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an expression of religion or politics. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as well as many in South America and Africa.

The Western tradition of sculpture began in Ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith. The revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, and the presentation of found objects as finished art works.


Sculpture sections
Intro  Types of sculpture  Purposes and subjects  Materials and techniques  Social status of sculptors  Anti-sculpture movements  History of sculpture  Modernism  Conservation  See also  Notes  References  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Types of sculpture
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