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Scotland
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[[File:Lionrampant.svg |125px |alt= |Royal Standard of Scotland]]
Flag Royal Standard
Motto: "In My Defens God Me Defend"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (Scots)
"In my defence God me defend"a
Anthem: Variousb
Predominantly "Flower of Scotland"
Location of  Scotland{{#invoke:String
Location of  Scotland{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark green)

– in Europe{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green)

Status {{safesubst:#invoke:list|horizontal}}
CapitalEdinburgh
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:55|57|N|3|11|W|type:city||

| |name=

}}
Largest city Glasgow
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:55|51|N|4|16|W|||

| |name=

}}
Languages English
Recognised regional
languagesc
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Ethnic groups (2011) {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Demonym {{safesubst:#invoke:list|horizontal}}
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Government Devolved parliamentary legislature within constitutional
monarchy
e
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  First Minister Nicola Sturgeon {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}
 -  Prime Minister David Cameron
 -  Secretary of State David Mundell
Legislature Scottish Parliament
Formation
 -  Established 9th century (traditionally 843) 
 -  Union with England 1 May 1707 
 -  Devolution 19 November 1998 
Area
 -  Land 77,933 km2<ref name=ONSCOUNTRYPROFILES>Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.</ref>
30,090 sq mi
Population
 -  2013 estimate 5,327,700<ref name=autogenerated1>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
 -  2011 census 5,313,600<ref name=autogenerated3>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
 -  Density 67.5/km2
174.1/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $245.267 billion<ref name="GDP">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
(including revenues from
North Sea oil and gas)
 -  Per capita $45,904
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC​)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44
Patron saint {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Internet TLD .scotf
Website
{{#invoke:URL|url|1=http://www.scotland.org/%7C2=}}
a. Often shown abbreviated as "In Defens".
b. Flower of Scotland, Scotland the Brave and Scots Wha Hae have been used in lieu of an official anthem (see National anthem of Scotland).
c. Both Scots and Scottish Gaelic are officially recognised as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
Under the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, the Bòrd na Gàidhlig is tasked with securing Gaelic as an official language of Scotland that commands "equal respect" with English.<ref>Macleod, Angus "Gaelic given official status" (22 April 2005) The Times. London. Retrieved 2 August 2007.</ref>
d. Historically, the use of "Scotch" as an adjective comparable to "Scottish" or "Scots" was commonplace, particularly outside Scotland. Today, however, the term is used to describe products of Scotland (usually food or drink-related).
e. The head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952). Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. It is also a UK electoral region for the European Parliament. Certain executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh.
f. .scot is not a ccTLD, but a gTLD, open to use by all people in Scotland and related to Scotland. .uk and .eu, as part of the United Kingdom and European Union, are also used. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

Scotland ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Scots:

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{{#invoke:Redirect template|main}}; Scottish Gaelic: Alba{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.<ref name="Stats 1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Country">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,<ref name="Scottish Executive">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

Edinburgh, the country's capital and second-largest city, was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual, and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, King James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.<ref name=Keay/><ref name=Mackie/> The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. The Treaty of Union was agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union 1707 passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.<ref name="1707 protests">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Great Britain itself subsequently entered into a political union with Ireland on 1 January 1801 to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Scotland's legal system has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law.<ref>Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf) Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom

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{{#invoke:Redirect template|main}}Scotland and Northern Ireland

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{{#invoke:Redirect template|main}}are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey."</ref> The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union.<ref name="administrative control">Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 "created a new and powerful local state run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland"</ref> Following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, this time as a devolved legislature with authority over many areas of home affairs. The Scottish National Party, which supports Scottish independence, won an overall majority in the 2011 general election.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> An independence referendum held on 18 September 2014 rejected independence by a majority of 55% to 45% on an 85% voter turnout.<ref name=bbc-result>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is represented in the European Union and the European Parliament with six MEPs.<ref name=ScotMEPs>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Scotland sections
Intro   Etymology    History    Government and politics    Law and criminal justice    Geography and natural history    Economy and infrastructure    Demography    Military    Culture    See also    References    Further reading    External links   

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