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Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Flag Emblem
Motto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله
"Lā ʾilāha ʾillāl–lāh, Muhammadun rasūl allāh"
"There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God."<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Anthem: السلام الملكي{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (as an instrumental)
"as-Salām al-Malakiyy"
"The Royal Salute"
Capital
and largest city
Riyadh
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:24|39|N|46|46|E|type:city||

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Official languages Arabic<ref name="CIA World Factbook"/>
Ethnic groups 90% Arab
10% Afro-Arab
Religion Sunni Islam (official)<ref name=irf2010/>
Demonym {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Government Unitary Islamic Absolute monarchy
 -  King Salman bin Abdulaziz
 -  Crown Prince Mohammad bin Nayef
 -  Deputy Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman
Legislature NoneUnknown extension tag "ref"
Establishment
 -  Kingdom founded 23 September 1932 
Area
 -  Total 2,149,690<ref name="CIA World Factbook" /> km2 (13th)
830,000 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.7
Population
 -  2014 estimate 30,770,375<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref> (41st)
 -  Density 12.3/km2 (216th)
31/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.668 trillion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref> (14th)
 -  Per capita $53,149<ref name=imf2/> (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $648.971 billion<ref name=imf2/> (20th)
 -  Per capita $20,677<ref name=imf2/> (38th)
HDI (2013)Steady 0.836<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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very high · 34th
Currency Saudi riyal (SR) (SAR)
Time zone AST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +966
ISO 3166 code SA
Internet TLD {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
a. ^ Legislation is by king's decree. The Consultative Assembly exists to advise the king.

Saudi ArabiaUnknown extension tag "ref" ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}, {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}), officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA),Unknown extension tag "ref" is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, Saudi Arabia is geographically the second-largest state in the Arab world after Algeria. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, and Yemen to the south. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid inhospitable desert or barren landforms.

The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd, and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. The country has since been an absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines. Wahhabi Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture".<ref name="HT2003: 14">Tripp, Culture Shock, 2003: p.14</ref><ref>Malbouisson, p. 23</ref> Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam. The Kingdom has a total population of 28.7 million, of which 20 million are Saudi nationals and 8 million are foreigners.<ref>"Saudi Arabia profile – Key facts". BBC News. 23 May 2013</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=demo>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil producer and largest exporter, and controls the world's second largest hydrocarbon reserves.<ref>http://www.eia.gov/countries/index.cfm?view=production</ref> Backed by its fossil fuels, the kingdom is categorized as a high income economy with a high Human Development Index (HDI),<ref name=UNDR2014>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> However, Saudi Arabia has the least diversified economy in the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is a monarchical autocracy<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name=EIU>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and is ranked as "Not Free" by Freedom House.<ref name=FH2013>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Saudi Arabia has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world,<ref>The Military Balance 2014: Top 15 Defence Budgets 2013 (IISS)</ref><ref name="SIPRI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and in 2010–14, SIPRI found that Saudi Arabia was the world's second largest arms importer.<ref name="books.sipri.org">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power.<ref name="The United States and the Great Powers">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In addition to the GCC, it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Etymology

Following the unification of the kingdoms of Hejaz and Nejd, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud (Ibn Saud). Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English<ref name="US State Dept Saudi Arabia">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> it literally means "the Arab Saudi Kingdom".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-Suʻūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country, which is a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of the Saudi royal family, the Al Saud (آل سعود). Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the personal possession of the royal family.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name= Kamrava>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of",<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> to the personal name of an ancestor. In the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th century founder, Muhammad bin Saud.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Those who do not recognize Saudi rule (particularly the Islamic State) call the nation the "land of Haramayn (the two holy places)" in reference to Mecca and Medina.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Saudi Arabia sections
Intro  History  Politics  Geography  Administrative divisions  Economy  Demographics  Monarchs (1932\u2013present)  Culture  Education  See also  Notes  References  Bibliography  External links  

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