History::Rustication (architecture)


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Serlio, rusticated doorway, 1537

Although rustication is known from a few buildings of Roman Antiquity,{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} the method first became popular during the Renaissance, when the stone work of lower floors and sometimes entire facades of buildings were finished in this manner. Donato Bramante's Palazzo Caprini ("House of Raphael") in Rome provided a standard model, where the obvious strength of a blind arcade with emphatic voussoirs on the basement level gave reassuring support to the upper storey's paired columns standing on rusticated piers. The Palazzo Te in Mantua and the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence are examples in which the entire facade is rusticated. In his Banqueting House in London (1619), Inigo Jones gave a lightly rusticated surface texture to emphasize the blocks on both storeys, and to unify them behind his orders of pilasters and columns.

The Mannerist architect Sebastiano Serlio and others of his generation enjoyed the play between rusticated and finished architectural elements. In the woodcut of a doorway from Serlio's 1537 treatise, the banded rustication of the wall is carried right across the attached column and the moldings of the doorway surround, binding together all the elements.

During the 18th century, following the Palladian revival, rustication was widely used on the ground floors of large buildings, as its contrived appearance of simplicity and solidity contrasted well to the carved ornamental stonework and columns of the floors above. A ground floor with rustication, especially in an English mansion such as Kedleston Hall is sometimes referred to as the "rustic floor", in order to distinguish it from the piano nobile above.

Massive effects of contrasting rustications typify the "Richardsonian Romanesque" style exemplified in the 1870s and 80s by the American architect H. H. Richardson.

Rustication (architecture) sections
Intro  Variations  History  Feigned rustication in wood construction  References   External links   

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