::Renal cell carcinoma


First::journal    Renal::title    Renal::pages    Volume::issue    Cancer::cells    Kidney::blood


{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Renal cell carcinoma (RCC, also known as hypernephroma, Grawitz tumor, renal adenocarcinoma) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport waste molecules from the blood to the urine. RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 90-95% of cases.<ref name = MSR>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Initial treatment is most commonly either partial or complete removal of the affected kidney(s) and remains the mainstay of curative treatment.<ref name="r">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Where the cancer has not metastasised (spread to other organs) or burrowed deeper into the tissues of the kidney, the 5-year survival rate is 65-90%,<ref></ref> but this is lowered considerably when the cancer has spread. It is relatively resistant to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, although some cases respond to targeted therapies such as sunitinib, temsirolimus, bevacizumab, interferon alfa and sorafenib which have improved the outlook for RCC.<ref name=singer>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

The body is remarkably good at hiding the symptoms and as a result people with RCC often have advanced disease by the time it is discovered.<ref name="path">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The initial symptoms of RCC often include: blood in the urine (occurring in 40% of affected persons at the time they first seek medical attention), flank pain (40%), a mass in the abdomen or flank (25%), weight loss (33%), fever (20%), high blood pressure (20%), night sweats and generally feeling unwell.<ref name="MSR" />

RCC is also associated with a number of paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) which are conditions caused by either the hormones produced by the tumour or by the body's attack on the tumour and are present in about 20% of those with RCC.<ref name="MSR" /> These syndromes most commonly affect tissues which have not been invaded by the cancer.<ref name="MSR" />

The most common PNSs seen in people with RCC are: anaemia (due to an underproduction of the hormone, erythropoietin), high blood calcium levels, polycythaemia (the opposite to anaemia, due to an overproduction of erythropoietin), thrombocytosis (too many platelets in the blood, leading to an increased tendency for blood clots and bleeds) and secondary amyloidosis.<ref name = MM/>

When RCC metastasises, it most commonly spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, adrenal glands, brain or bones.<ref name = MM/>

Renal cell carcinoma sections
Intro   Signs and symptoms    Cause    Pathophysiology    Diagnosis    Management    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma    Prognosis    Epidemiology    History    See also    References   

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