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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.<ref>"So We Need Something Else for Reason to Mean", International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8: 3, 271 — 295.</ref> It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human nature.<ref> Compare: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} </ref> The concept of reason is sometimes referred to as rationality and sometimes as discursive reason, in opposition to intuitive reason.<ref>Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 6 – The Intellectual Virtues</ref>

Reason or "reasoning" is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. Reason, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea. For example, it is the means by which rational beings understand themselves to think about cause and effect, truth and falsehood, and what is good or bad. It is also closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self-determination.<ref>Michel Foucault, "What is Enlightenment?" in The Essential Foucault, eds. Paul Rabinow and Nikolas Rose, New York: The New Press, 2003, 43-57. See also Nikolas Kompridis, "The Idea of a New Beginning: A Romantic Source of Normativity and Freedom," in Philosophical Romanticism, New York: Routledge, 2006, 32-59; "So We Need Something Else for Reason to Mean", International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8: 3, 271 — 295.</ref>

In contrast to reason as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration which explains or justifies some event, phenomenon or behaviour.<ref name=mw>Merriam-Webster.com Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of reason</ref> The field of logic studies ways in which human beings reason through argument.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.


Reason sections
Intro  Etymology and related words  Philosophical history  Reason compared to related concepts  Traditional problems raised concerning reason  Reason in particular fields of study  See also  References  Further reading  

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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}}

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.<ref>"So We Need Something Else for Reason to Mean", International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8: 3, 271 — 295.</ref> It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human nature.<ref> Compare: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} </ref> The concept of reason is sometimes referred to as rationality and sometimes as discursive reason, in opposition to intuitive reason.<ref>Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 6 – The Intellectual Virtues</ref>

Reason or "reasoning" is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. Reason, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea. For example, it is the means by which rational beings understand themselves to think about cause and effect, truth and falsehood, and what is good or bad. It is also closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self-determination.<ref>Michel Foucault, "What is Enlightenment?" in The Essential Foucault, eds. Paul Rabinow and Nikolas Rose, New York: The New Press, 2003, 43-57. See also Nikolas Kompridis, "The Idea of a New Beginning: A Romantic Source of Normativity and Freedom," in Philosophical Romanticism, New York: Routledge, 2006, 32-59; "So We Need Something Else for Reason to Mean", International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8: 3, 271 — 295.</ref>

In contrast to reason as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration which explains or justifies some event, phenomenon or behaviour.<ref name=mw>Merriam-Webster.com Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of reason</ref> The field of logic studies ways in which human beings reason through argument.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.


Reason sections
Intro  Etymology and related words  Philosophical history  Reason compared to related concepts  Traditional problems raised concerning reason  Reason in particular fields of study  See also  References  Further reading  

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