::Qajar dynasty


Qajar::mohammad    Iranian::persian    Books::mirza    Russian::first    Dynasty::georgia    History::fisher

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Qājāriyyeh ="3" style="vertical-align:top; text-align:center; font-size:95%;" Anthem
Salâm-e Shâh
(Royal salute)
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Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century.

="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Tehran

="2" Languages Persian (court literature, administrative, cultural, official),<ref>Homa Katouzian, "State and Society in Iran: The Eclipse of the Qajars and the Emergence of the Pahlavis", Published by I.B.Tauris, 2006. pg 327: "In post-Islamic times, the mother-tongue of Iran's rulers was often Turkic, but Persian was almost invariably the cultural and administrative language"</ref><ref>Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"</ref>
Azerbaijani Turkish (court language & mother tongue)<ref>Ardabil Becomes a Province: Center-Periphery Relations in Iran, H. E. Chehabi, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2 (May, 1997), 235;"Azeri Turkish was widely spoken at the two courts in addition to Persian, and Mozaffareddin Shah (r.1896-1907) spoke Persian with an Azeri Turkish accent....".</ref>

="2" Shah, Mirza || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1794–1797 Mohammad Khan Qajar(first) - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1909–1925 Ahmad Shah Qajar(last) - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" ="2" Prime Minister - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1906 Mirza Nasrullah Khan(first) - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1923–1925 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Treaty of Gulistan ="vertical-align: bottom;"1813 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Treaty of Turkmenchay ="vertical-align: bottom;"1828 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Treaty of Paris ="vertical-align: bottom;"1857 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Treaty of Akhal ="vertical-align: bottom;"1881 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Constitutional Revolution ="vertical-align: bottom;"1906 ="2" Currency qiran<ref>علی‌اصغر شمیم، ایران در دوره سلطنت قاجار، ته‍ران‌: انتشارات علمی، ۱۳۷۱، ص ۲۸۷</ref> ="2" Today part of {{safesubst:#invoke:collapsible list|main}}
Qajar dynasty




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Government Absolute monarchy (1785–1906)

Constitutional monarchy (1906–1925)

Reza Pahlavi (last)

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 •  Qajar dynasty begins 1789
 •  Pahlavi dynasty begins 1925

The Qajar dynasty (About this sound listen ; Persian: سلسله قاجار‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}‎ Selsele-ye Qājār; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Azerbaijani: Qacarlar{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) was a Persianized<ref name="Abbas">Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3</ref> royal family of Turkic origin,<ref name="kadjarfamily.org">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="ghani1">Cyrus Ghani. Iran and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power, I.B. Tauris, 2000, ISBN 1-86064-629-8, p. 1</ref><ref name="William Bayne Fisher 1993, p. 344">William Bayne Fisher. Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 344, ISBN 0-521-20094-6</ref><ref name="online edition">Dr Parviz Kambin, A History of the Iranian Plateau: Rise and Fall of an Empire, Universe, 2011, p.36, online edition.</ref><ref>Jamie Stokes, Anthony Gorman, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, 2010, p.707, Online Edition, The Safavid and Qajar dynasties, rulers in Iran from 1501 to 1722 and from 1795 to 1925 respectively, were Turkic in origin.</ref> which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925.<ref name=autogenerated1>Abbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3; "In the 126 years between the fall of the Safavid state in 1722 and the accession of Nasir al-Din Shah, the Qajars evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Iran into a Persian dynasty.."</ref><ref>Choueiri, Youssef M., A companion to the history of the Middle East, (Blackwell Ltd., 2005), 231,516.</ref> The state ruled by the dynasty was officially known as the Sublime State of Persia (Persian: دولت علیّه ایران‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}‎ Dowlat-e Elliye ye Irān). The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus and Central Asia. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects.<ref name="books.google.nl">Michael Axworthy. Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster to the Present Day Penguin UK, 6 nov. 2008 ISBN 0141903414</ref> In the North Caucasus and South Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty eventually permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas which had made part of the concept of Iran for three centuries to the Russians in the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.<ref name="Timothy C. Dowling pp 729">Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484</ref>

Qajar dynasty sections
Intro  Origins  Rise to power  Reconquest of Georgia and the rest of the Caucasus  Wars with Russia and irrevocable loss of territories  Development and decline  Constitutional Revolution  Fall of the dynasty  Shahs of Persia, 1794\u20131925  Qajar Royal Family  Notable members of Qajar family  See also  References  Sources  External links  

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