Neural mechanisms::Psychological pain


Journal::title    Pages::volume    Issue::author    Disorder::vcite    First::physical    Patients::social

Neural mechanisms Research suggests that physical pain and psychological pain may share some underlying neurological mechanisms.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="mee_2006">Mee, S, Bunney, BG, Reist, C, Potkin, SG, & Bunney, WE.. Psychological pain: a review of evidence. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2006;40(8):680-90. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.03.003.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="meerwijk_2012">Meerwijk, EL, Ford, JM, & Weiss, SJ.. Brain regions associated with psychological pain: implications for a neural network and its relationship to physical pain. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9179-y.</ref> Brain regions that were consistently found to be implicated in both types of pain are the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex (some subregions more than others), and may extend to other regions as well. Brain regions that were also found to be involved in psychological pain include the insular cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, parahippocampal gyrus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Some advocate that, because similar brain regions are involved in both physical pain and psychological pain, we should see pain as a continuum that ranges from purely physical to purely psychological.<ref name="biro_2010">Biro D.. Is there such a thing as psychological pain? and why It matters. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. 2010;34(4):658-67. doi:10.1007/s11013-010-9190-y.</ref> Moreover, many sources mention the fact that we use metaphors of physical pain to refer to psychological pain experiences.<ref name="macdonald_2005" /><ref name="meerwijk_2011" /><ref name="flaskerud_2011">Flaskerud JH.. Heartbreak and physical pain linked in brain. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2011;32:789-91. doi:10.3109/01612840.2011.583714.</ref>

Psychological pain sections
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Neural mechanisms
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