::Prostate cancer


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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Prostate cancer, also known as carcinoma of the prostate, is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly.<ref name=WCR2014>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=NCI2014TxPro/> The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> It may initially cause no symptoms.<ref name=NCI2014TxPro/> In later stages it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating.<ref name=NCI2013TxPt>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.<ref name=NCI2014TxPro/>

Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race. About 99% of cases occur in those over the age of 50. Having a first degree relative with the disease increases the risk 2 to 3 fold. In the United States it is more common in the African American population than the White American population. Other factors that may be involved include a diet high in processed meat, red meat, or milk products or low in certain vegetables.<ref name=WCR2014/> An association with gonorrhea has been found, but a reason for this relationship has not been identified.<ref name="CainiGandini2014">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Prostate cancer is diagnosed by biopsy. Medical imaging may then be done to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.<ref name=NCI2013TxPt/>

Prostate cancer screening is controversial.<ref name=WCR2014/><ref name=NCI2014TxPro/> Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality.<ref name="BMJ2010">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening using the PSA testing, due to the risk of over-diagnosis and over-treatment as most cancer diagnosed would remain asymptomatic. The USPSTF concludes that the potential benefits of testing do not outweigh the expected harms.<ref name=USPTF2012>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> While 5α-reductase inhibitors appear to decrease low grade cancer risk they do not affect high grade cancer risk and thus are not recommended for prevention.<ref name=WCR2014/> Supplementation with vitamins or minerals does not appear to affect the risk.<ref name=WCR2014/><ref name=Strat2011>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Many cases can be safely followed with active surveillance or watchful waiting. Other treatments may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy.<ref name=NCI2013TxPt/> When it only occurs inside the prostate it may be curable.<ref name=NCI2014TxPro>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In those in whom the disease has spread to the bones, pain medications, bisphosphonates and targeted therapy, among others, may be useful. Outcomes depend on a person's age and other health problems as well as how aggressive and extensive the cancer is. Most people with prostate cancer do not end up dying from the disease.<ref name=NCI2013TxPt/> The five year survival rate in the United States is 99%.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Globally it is the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men.<ref name=WCR2014Epi>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In 2012 it occurred in 1.1 million men and caused 307,000 deaths.<ref name=WCR2014Epi/> It was the most common cancer in males in 84 countries,<ref name=WCR2014/> occurring more commonly in the developed world. Rates have been increasing in the developing world.<ref name=Baade2009>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Detection increased significantly in the 1980s and 1990s in many areas due to increased PSA testing.<ref name=WCR2014/> Studies of males who died from unrelated causes have found prostate cancer in 30% to 70% of those over age 60.<ref name=NCI2014TxPro/>

Prostate cancer sections
Intro  Signs and symptoms  Risk factors  Pathophysiology  Diagnosis  Prevention  Screening  Management  Prognosis  Epidemiology  History  Society and culture  Research  References  External links  

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