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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.<ref name=RespText09>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=AcuteCare09>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.<ref name=RespText09/><ref name="isbn0-7637-6258-X">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Typical signs and symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.<ref name="isbn0-8160-6397-4">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Diagnostic tools include x-rays and culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized.

Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally per year (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths. Although pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death,"<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> the advent of antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20th century has seen improvements in survival.<ref name=Lancet11/> Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death.<ref name=Lancet11/><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In the terminally ill and elderly, especially those with other conditions, pneumonia is often the immediate cause of death. In such cases, particularly when it cuts short the suffering associated with lingering illness, pneumonia has often been called "the old man's friend."<ref name=EBMED05/>


Pneumonia sections
Intro  Signs and symptoms  Cause  Mechanisms  Diagnosis  Prevention  Management  Prognosis  Epidemiology  History  Society and culture  References  [[Pneumonia?section=External</a>_links|External</a> links]]  

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