Actions

::Phylogenetics

::concepts



{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

Red algae

Phylogenetics {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> – in biology – is the study of phylogenesis, or the evolutionary history, development and relationships among groups of organisms (e.g. species, or populations). These are discovered mainly{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} through molecular data matrices, based on nucleic acids sequences and protein structures. The result of a phylogenetic study is a phylogeny – a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of taxonomic groups.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Evolution is a process whereby populations are altered over time and may split into separate branches, hybridize together, or terminate by extinction. The evolutionary branching process may be depicted as a phylogenetic tree, and the place of each of the various organisms on the tree is based on a hypothesis about the sequence in which evolutionary branching events occurred. In historical linguistics, similar concepts are used with respect to relationships between languages; and in textual criticism with stemmatics.

Phylogenetic analyses have become essential to research on the evolutionary tree of life. For example, the RedToL aims at reconstructing the red algae tree of life. The National Science Foundation sponsors a project called the Assembling the Tree of Life (AToL). The goal of this project is to determine evolutionary relationships across large groups of organisms throughout the history of life. The research on this project often involves large teams working across institutions and disciplines, and typically provides support to investigators working on computational phylogenetics and phyloinformatics tasks, including data acquisition, analysis, and algorithm development and dissemination.

Taxonomy is the classification, identification and naming of organisms. It is usually richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies (or classification depends on evolutionary development) differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead; cladistics (phylogenetic systematics) tries to reproduce phylogeny in its classification without loss of information; evolutionary taxonomy tries to find a compromise between them in order to represent stages of evolution.


Phylogenetics sections
Intro   Construction of a phylogenetic tree    Limitations and workarounds    The role of fossils    History    See also    References    Bibliography    External links   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Construction of a phylogenetic tree
<<>>

First::journal    Title::trees    Species::analysis    Farris::pages    Issue::volume    Goloboff::concept

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

Red algae

Phylogenetics {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> – in biology – is the study of phylogenesis, or the evolutionary history, development and relationships among groups of organisms (e.g. species, or populations). These are discovered mainly{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} through molecular data matrices, based on nucleic acids sequences and protein structures. The result of a phylogenetic study is a phylogeny – a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of taxonomic groups.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Evolution is a process whereby populations are altered over time and may split into separate branches, hybridize together, or terminate by extinction. The evolutionary branching process may be depicted as a phylogenetic tree, and the place of each of the various organisms on the tree is based on a hypothesis about the sequence in which evolutionary branching events occurred. In historical linguistics, similar concepts are used with respect to relationships between languages; and in textual criticism with stemmatics.

Phylogenetic analyses have become essential to research on the evolutionary tree of life. For example, the RedToL aims at reconstructing the red algae tree of life. The National Science Foundation sponsors a project called the Assembling the Tree of Life (AToL). The goal of this project is to determine evolutionary relationships across large groups of organisms throughout the history of life. The research on this project often involves large teams working across institutions and disciplines, and typically provides support to investigators working on computational phylogenetics and phyloinformatics tasks, including data acquisition, analysis, and algorithm development and dissemination.

Taxonomy is the classification, identification and naming of organisms. It is usually richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies (or classification depends on evolutionary development) differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead; cladistics (phylogenetic systematics) tries to reproduce phylogeny in its classification without loss of information; evolutionary taxonomy tries to find a compromise between them in order to represent stages of evolution.


Phylogenetics sections
Intro   Construction of a phylogenetic tree    Limitations and workarounds    The role of fossils    History    See also    References    Bibliography    External links   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Construction of a phylogenetic tree
<<>>