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Language::greek    Study::century    Scholars::texts    Ancient::textual    Which::persian    European::english

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> It is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning.

Classical philology is the philology of Classical Sanskrit, Pali, Tamil, Greek, Roman and Classical Latin. Classical philology is historically originating principally from the Library of Pergamum and the Library of Alexandria<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> around the 4th century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman and Byzantine Empires, preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age and eventually taken up by European scholars of The Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other languages of non-Asian (European) (Germanic, Celtic), Eurasian (Slavistics, etc.) and Asian (Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Chinese, etc.). Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages.

Any classical language can be studied philologically, and indeed describing a language as "classical" is to imply the existence of a philological tradition associated with it{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}.

Because of its focus on historical development (diachronic analysis), philology came to be used as a term contrasting with linguistics. This is due to a 20th-century development triggered by Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis, and the later emergence of structuralism and Chomskyan linguistics with its emphasis on syntax.


Philology sections
Intro   Etymology    Branches   In popular culture   See also    References    External links   

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