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Islamic Republic of Pakistan
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Flag Emblem
Motto: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm
  1. REDIRECT {{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (Urdu)
    "Faith, Unity, Discipline" 0.2em
Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah
  1. REDIRECT {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
    "The National Anthem"<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory shown in light green.
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory shown in light green.
CapitalIslamabad
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:33|40|N|73|10|E|type:city||

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Largest city Karachi
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:24|51|36|N|67|00|36|E|

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Official languages Urdu (official)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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English (co-official)
Regional languages Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki, Balochi, Kashmiri, Brahui, Hindko, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Burushaski Yidgha, Dameli, Kalasha, Gawar-Bati, Domaaki<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Religion Islam
Demonym Pakistani
Government Federal parliamentary republic
 -  President Mamnoon Hussain
 -  Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
 -  Chief Justice Anwar Zaheer Jamali
 -  Chairman of the Senate Raza Rabbani
 -  Speaker of the National Assembly Murtaza Javed Abbasi (Acting)
Legislature Majlis-e-Shoora
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Conception<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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29 December 1930 
 -  Declaration 28 January 1933 
 -  Resolution 23 March 1940 
 -  Dominion 14 August 1947 
 -  Islamic Republic 23 March 1956 
Area
 -  Total 881,912 km2Unknown extension tag "ref" (36th)
340,508 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 3.1
Population
 -  2015 estimate 199,085,847<ref name="USCB">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Density 260.8/km2 (55th)
675.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total {{{1}}} (26th)
 -  Per capita $4,902<ref name=imf3/> (136th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total {{{1}}} (42nd)
 -  Per capita $1,427.08<ref name=imf2/> (153rd)
Gini (2008)30.0<ref name="wb-gini">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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medium
HDI (2013)Steady 0.537<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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low · 146th
Currency Pakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+6b)
Drives on the left<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk
a. See also Pakistani English.
b. Not always observed; see Daylight saving time in Pakistan.

Pakistan ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Urdu:

  1. REDIRECT ‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ALA-LC: Pākistān, pronounced [pɑːkɪst̪ɑːn]), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu:
  2. REDIRECT ‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ALA-LC: Islāmī Jumhūriyah-yi Pākistān IPA: [ɪslɑːmiː d͡ʒʊmɦuːriəɪh pɑːkɪst̪ɑːn]), is a sovereign country in South Asia. With a population exceeding 199 million people,<ref name="USCB"/> it is the sixth most populous country and with an area covering 796,095 km2 (307,374 sq mi), it is the 36th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan has a {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of Subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. A civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. A regional and middle power,<ref name="Buzan2004">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=Solomon>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, being the only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector, its economy is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP and is also characterized among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Despite these factors it maintains strategic endowments and development potential while it has made substantial progress in reducing poverty giving it the second lowest headcount poverty rate in South Asia.<ref>Overview of Pakistan</ref> It is ranked 16th on the 2012 Happy Planet Index,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> while its stock exchange has been among the highest performing in Asia.<ref>http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/national/04-Jul-2015/bloomberg-ranks-pakistan-among-world-s-top-ten-stock-market-performers</ref> It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven Economies, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ECO, UfC, D8, Cairns Group, Kyoto Protocol, ICCPR, RCD, UNCHR, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Group of Eleven, CPFTA, Group of 24, the G20 developing nations, ECOSOC, founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, SAARC and CERN.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Etymology

The name Pakistan literally means "Land of the Pure" in Urdu and Persian. It comes from the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> while the word istān is a Persian word meaning place of; it is a cognate of the Sanskrit word sthāna (Devanagari: स्थान{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [st̪ʰaːnə]).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

It was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never,<ref name="nowornever">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the British Raj: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan".<ref name="Now or Never">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Ikram1995">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref> The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name.<ref name="davison">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Pakistan sections
Intro  History  Government and politics  Geography, environment and climate  Infrastructure  Demographics  Culture and society  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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