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In phenomenology, the terms the Other and the Constitutive Other each identify a cumulative, constituting factor in the self-image of a person; the acknowledgement of being real. As such, the Other is dissimilar to and the opposite of the Self, of Us, and of the Same.<ref>“the Other”, The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, Third Edition, (1999) p. 620.</ref> Otherness, the characteristics of the Other, is the state of being different from and alien to the social identity of a person and to the identity of the Self.<ref name=The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In relation to the Self, the Constitutive Other is the relation, between the essential nature (personality) and the outward manifestation (person) of a human being; that is, a binary perspective of the essential and of the superficial characteristics of personal identity, wherein each personal characteristic is the inverse of an opposite characteristic; that the difference is inner-difference, within the Self.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} “The relation of essential nature to outward manifestation in pure change . . . to infinity . . . as inner difference . . . [is within] its own Self”</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

In the discourse of philosophy, the term Otherness refers to and identifies the characteristics of Who and What of the Other, which characteristics are distinct and separate from the Symbolic order of things; from the Real (the authentic and unchangeable); from the æsthetic (art, beauty, taste); from political philosophy; from social norms and social identity; and from the Self. Therefore, the condition of Otherness is a person’s non-conformity to and with the social norms of society; and to the condition of disenfranchisement (political exclusion), either by the activities of the State or by the activities of the social institutions (e.g. the professions), which are respectively invested with political and social Power. Therefore, in the condition of Otherness, the person is alienated from the centre of society, and is placed at the societal margin, for being the Other.<ref>“Otherness”, The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, Third Edition, (1999) p. 620.</ref>

When the term the Other is applied as the verb Othering, it is a usage that distinguishes and identifies (labels) someone as belonging to a category, defined as Other. In practice, Othering excludes those persons who do not fit the norm of the social group, which is a version of the Self. Likewise, in the field of Human geography, the verbal-action term to Other refers to and identifies the action of placing someone outside the centre of the social group, at the societal margins, where the social norms do not apply for the Other person.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


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