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Unknown extension tag "indicator"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.<ref name="WHO 2000 p.6">WHO 2000 p.6</ref><ref name=HaslamJames/> In Western countries, people are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI),<ref name="WHO 2000 p.9">WHO 2000 p.9</ref> a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, exceeds {{safesubst:#invoke:val|main}}, with the range 25-{{safesubst:#invoke:val|main}} defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use stricter criteria.

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.<ref name=HaslamJames/> Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited. On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=Anes2000>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Dieting and exercising are the main treatments for obesity. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. With a suitable diet, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon may assist with weight loss, or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier and a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.<ref>NICE 2006 p.10–11</ref><ref name=balloon2008>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.<ref name=Barn1999>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history and still is in some parts of the world.<ref name=HaslamJames/><ref name=Woodhouse/> In 2013, the American Medical Association classified obesity as a disease.<ref name=NYTimes20130618>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Obesity sections
Intro  Classification  [[Obesity?section={{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Effects_on_health|{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Effects on health]]  Causes  Pathophysiology  Public health  Management  Epidemiology  History  Society and culture  Childhood obesity  Other animals  Notes  Further reading  

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Journal::obesity    Title::author    Pages::volume    Issue::obesity    First::weight    Review::health

  1. REDIRECT

Unknown extension tag "indicator"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.<ref name="WHO 2000 p.6">WHO 2000 p.6</ref><ref name=HaslamJames/> In Western countries, people are considered obese when their body mass index (BMI),<ref name="WHO 2000 p.9">WHO 2000 p.9</ref> a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, exceeds {{safesubst:#invoke:val|main}}, with the range 25-{{safesubst:#invoke:val|main}} defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use stricter criteria.

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.<ref name=HaslamJames/> Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or psychiatric illness. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited. On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=Anes2000>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Dieting and exercising are the main treatments for obesity. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. With a suitable diet, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon may assist with weight loss, or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier and a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.<ref>NICE 2006 p.10–11</ref><ref name=balloon2008>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.<ref name=Barn1999>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history and still is in some parts of the world.<ref name=HaslamJames/><ref name=Woodhouse/> In 2013, the American Medical Association classified obesity as a disease.<ref name=NYTimes20130618>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Obesity sections
Intro  Classification  [[Obesity?section={{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Effects_on_health|{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Effects on health]]  Causes  Pathophysiology  Public health  Management  Epidemiology  History  Society and culture  Childhood obesity  Other animals  Notes  Further reading  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Classification
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