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Private nudity {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Globalize |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Message box|ambox}} }}

Personal nudity

Private bathrooms are the space where nudity is most common

In the privacy of their own homes, people are more casual in relation to clothing, though what each considers appropriate varies considerably. What and how much clothing a person removes depends on a number of considerations, including the cultural background and on whether the person is alone in the privacy of their own homes. A person's cultural background as well as their religious teachings will have an impact on the way they view their own nudity, alone or in the presence of others, as well as viewing the nudity of others. Some cultures deprecate nudity even in a private context.

Another factor is the level of privacy to which a person can be assured - for example, some parts of a home may be seen from the outside or there may be a possibility of others walking in. The expectation of privacy may be confined to the home and sometimes the backyard. Inside the home, it may be restricted to the bedroom or just the bathroom. If a person is not alone, their comfort in removing clothing in front of another person will generally depend on the nature of a relationship of those who jointly occupy the same private space, as well as the attitudes of others to nudity. Besides the nature of a relationship, attitudes and incidences of nudity will also depend on the level of inhibition that each person has, as well as the level of privacy to which that they can be assured. Sometimes a person may unintentionally intrude on a person who is in the nude, which may lead to embarrassment of one or both of the people. The nude person may seek to quickly cover their private parts, while the clothed person may turn away, but this also depends on cultural differences and the relationship of the people.

In the case of nudity in front of those who do not normally occupy the same private space, that will usually depend on whether the outsider is comfortable with the nudity and whether the nudity is reciprocated, as in the case of social nudism. Social nudism may take place in any private social context, such as at one's home with friends or with acquaintances at a nudist facility or event, such as a naturist club, community center, resort or other facility. Some social gatherings may organise party games, which may involve some level of nudity, such as strip games. Strip games can be played by single-sex groups or by mixed groups and may be intended to generate an atmosphere of fun and lighten the social atmosphere, or to heighten the sexual atmosphere.

A 1999 survey by the Federation of Canadian Naturists found, besides other things, that 39% of Canadians go naked in their own homes; that naturists tend to have above average incomes; that urban dwellers are more likely to be naturists than country dwellers; and that people under the age of 25 are the most likely to be naturists.<ref name=fcnstat >{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> According to a 2004 United States survey, 31% of men and 14% of women report sleeping in the nude,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} Short Analysis here</ref> while a 1996 BBC survey revealed that in the UK 47% of men and 17% of women do.<ref>The Clothes Show Magazine, May 1996, BBC Magazines</ref>

Sexual nudity

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A nude couple in bed

Nudity in front of a sexual partner is widely accepted, but not in all cases. For example, some partners insist on nudity only at the time and place of sex, or with subdued lighting; during bathing with the partner or afterward; covered by a sheet or blanket, or while sleeping.

Personal privacy issues

The invention of photography and more recently the video camera has opened the art of capturing images of people and scenes at a relatively low cost to the true amateur. A person can now capture images in both public and private situations. A feature of most private photographs and videos is that they are not intended for viewing outside of a very limited range of people, and seldom if ever by the general public. Amateur photography, which includes nude photography, which has previously been produced for personal enjoyment, is increasingly being more widely disseminated through the internet, at times without the knowledge and consent of the subject of the photograph, and to their subsequent embarrassment. Also, the use of secret photography to capture images of an unsuspecting person (undressed or not, and whether for personal use, or intended for posting on the Internet) creates additional personal privacy issues.

Children

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} There are differences of opinion as to whether, and if so to what extent, parents should appear naked in front of their children. Gordon and Schroeder report that parental nudity varies considerably from family to family.<ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} </ref> They say that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information. They note that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommend to parents who wish to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they limit such activities from that age onwards. Bonner recommends against nudity in the home if children exhibit sexual play of a type that is considered problematic.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

A U.S. study by Alfred Kinsey found that 75% of the participants stated that there was never nudity in the home when they were growing up, 5% of the participants said that there was "seldom" nudity in the home, 3% said "often", and 17% said that it was "usual". The study found that there was no significant difference between what was reported by men and by women with respect to frequency of nudity in the home.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

In a 1995 review of the literature, Paul Okami concluded that there was no reliable evidence linking exposure to parental nudity to any negative effect.<ref>Okami. P. (1995) ." Childhood exposure to parental nudity‚ parent-child co-sleeping‚ and 'primal scenes': A review of clinical opinion and empirical evidence," Journal of Sex Research, 32: 51–64.</ref> Three years later, his team finished an 18-year longitudinal study that showed that, if anything, such exposure was associated with slight beneficial effects, particularly for boys.<ref>Okami, P., Olmstead, R., Abramson, P. & Pendleton, L. (1998). “Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality (‘primal scenes’): An 18-year longitudinal study of outcome,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 27(4), 361–384.</ref>

Children seeing nudity

Two children bathing in a small metal bathtub

Attitudes toward children seeing nude people vary substantially, depending on the child's culture, age and the context of the nudity (see also the section Home above).

Television and radio regulations in many countries require broadcasters to avoid transmitting images or language considered inappropriate for children from 5:30 am to 9 pm (the so-called "watershed"). In the United Kingdom, the Broadcasting Code states, "Nudity before the watershed must be justified by the context."<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref> In the U.S., the safe harbor rule forbids depictions of nudity between the hours of 6 am and 10 pm. Violators may be subject to civil legal action and sanctions if the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) determines the broadcaster did not meet its standards of "decency". "Material is indecent if, in context, it depicts or describes sexual or excretory organs or activities in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium."<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Attitudes to nudity vary substantially throughout Europe. Male and female nudity in Scandinavia is not uncommon. The region has a very open attitude about nudity, although it strictly prohibits children's access to pornography.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Communal showering

{{#invoke:main|main}} Another issue has been the nudity of children in front of other children.

In continental Europe, students tend to shower communally after physical education classes, separated by gender. Fathers taking their young daughters or mothers taking their young sons into the gender-separated changing rooms is mostly viewed as non-controversial, although some public baths have introduced family changing rooms. Some private gymnasiums have instituted rules specifically banning family members of opposite genders taking their children into single-sex locker rooms.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

In the U.S. and some of the English-speaking majority of Canada, students at public schools have historically been required to shower communally with classmates of the same sex after physical education classes. In the U.S., public objections and the threat of lawsuits have resulted in a number of school districts in recent years changing policy to make showers optional. Private boarding schools and military academies in the U.S. often have communal showers, since the focus there is on 24-hours-a-day education and rooming, rather than just acting as day schools. Students in these establishments need places to clean themselves daily.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> A court case in Colorado noted that students have a reduced expectation of personal privacy in regards to "communal undress" while showering after physical education classes.<ref name="Trinidadvlopez">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> According to an interview with a middle school principal, most objections to showering at school that he had heard were actually from the students' parents rather than from the students.<ref name="PleacherIntervew1987">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref>

Children and naturism

A naturist family at Senftenberg lake in 1980s.

Children who are within a naturist home will usually also be naked, together with their family, and may see and be seen by non-family members in the nude. They may also be taken to naturist venues and events where they, their families and others would also generally be nude.


Nudity sections
Intro  Terminology  Public nudity  Private nudity  Depictions of nudity  Uses of nudity  Western culture  Non-Western attitudes  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

Private nudity
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