::Noam Chomsky


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Avram Noam Chomsky ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher,<ref name="szabo">"Noam Chomsky", by Zoltán Gendler Szabó, in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960, ed. Ernest Lepore (2004). "Chomsky's intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism, philosophy coming as a distant third. Nonetheless, his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous because of three factors. First, Chomsky contributed substantially to a major methodological shift in the human sciences, turning away from the prevailing empiricism of the middle of the twentieth century: behaviorism in psychology, structuralism in linguistics and positivism in philosophy. Second, his groundbreaking books on syntax (Chomsky (1957, 1965)) laid a conceptual foundation for a new, cognitivist approach to linguistics and provided philosophers with a new framework for thinking about human language and the mind. And finally, he has persistently defended his views against all takers, engaging in important debates with many of the major figures in analytic philosophy..."</ref><ref>The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (1999), "Chomsky, Noam," Cambridge University Press, pg. 138. "Chomsky, Noam (born 1928), preeminent American linguist, philosopher, and political activist... Many of Chomsky's most significant contributions to philosophy, such as his influential rejection of behaviorism... stem from his elaborations and defenses of the above consequences..."</ref> cognitive scientist, logician,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}. Viewed July 15, 2012.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}. Viewed July 15, 2012.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> political commentator, social justice activist, and anarcho-syndicalist advocate.<ref name = "Posner 2003 86">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}: "Chomsky is not a communist and does not admire any of the communist regimes."</ref> Sometimes described as the "father of modern linguistics,"<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Fox">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>Thomas Tymoczko, Jim Henle, James M. Henle, Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic, Birkhäuser, 2000, p. 101.</ref> Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy.<ref name="szabo" /> He has spent his entire career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he is currently Institute Professor Emeritus, and has authored over 100 books.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> He is widely considered a prominent cultural figure, and was voted the "world's top public intellectual" in a 2005 poll.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Born to a middle-class Jewish family in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from relatives in New York City. He later undertook studies in linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania, where he obtained his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D., while from 1951 to 1955 he was appointed to Harvard University's elite Society of Fellows,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> where he developed his groundbreaking theory of generative grammar. In 1955 he began teaching at MIT, soon becoming a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his publications and lectures on the subject. He is credited as the creator or co-creator of the Chomsky hierarchy, the universal grammar theory, the Chomsky–Schützenberger representation theorem, and the Chomsky–Schützenberger enumeration theorem. Chomsky also played a major role in the decline of behaviorism, and was especially critical of the work of B.F. Skinner.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 1967 he entered the public consciousness through his vocal opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, in part through his essay The Responsibility of Intellectuals, and came to be associated with the New Left while being arrested on multiple occasions for his anti-war activism. While expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he also developed the propaganda model of media criticism with Edward S. Herman.

Chomsky has been a highly influential academic figure throughout his career, and was cited within the field of Arts and Humanities more often than any other living scholar between 1980 and 1992. He was also the eighth most cited author overall within the Arts and Humanities Citation Index during the same period.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Hughes">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="robinson">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> His work has influenced a wide range of domains, including artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science, logic, mathematics, music theory and analysis, political science, programming language theory, and psychology.<ref name="Hughes" /><ref name="robinson" /><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="UMN Cognitive Science">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> Following his retirement from active teaching, he has continued his vocal public activism, for instance supporting the anti-Iraq War and Occupy movements. Today, Chomsky continues to be a well-known political activist, and a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, neoliberal capitalism, and the mainstream news media. Ideologically, he aligns himself with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Noam Chomsky sections
Intro   Early life   Rise to prominence  Linguistic theory  Political views  Debates  Personal life  Influence  Academic achievements, awards, and honors  Bibliography  Filmography  See also  References  External links  

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