::Neuron

::concepts

Neurons::neuron    Cells::first    Journal::which    Title::other    Brain::pages    Volume::system

{{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{safesubst:#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown= | Type | type | Name | neuron_name | name | MapPosIGNORE_PARAMETER | MapIGNORE_PARAMETER | TA98IGNORE_PARAMETER | ImageMap | Imagemap | image_map | MapWidth | map_caption | MapCaption | Image | image | image_neuron | Width | image_size | Alt | alt | Caption | caption | caption_neuron | Image2 | image2 | Width2 | image2_size | Alt2 | alt2 | Caption2 | caption2 | caption2_neuron | Latin | Greek | part_of | PartOf | is_part_of | IsPartOf | CarnegieStage | days | Days | system | System | components | Components | location | function | neurotransmitter | morphology | afferents | efferents | Origin | Origins | origin | origins | Insertion | Insertions | insertion | insertions | Articulation | Articulations | articulations | Supplies | DrainsFrom | Drainsfrom | BranchFrom | Branchfrom | Source | source | DrainsTo | Drainsto | BranchTo | Branchto | Blood | blood | artery | Artery | vein | Vein | nerve | Nerve | NerveRoot | lymph | Lymph | Action | action | PhysicalExam | Antagonist | precursor | Precursor | gives_rise_to | GivesRiseTo | From | To | Innervates | FiberType | acronym | Acronym | code | Code | BrainInfoType | BrainInfoNumber | NeuroLex | NeuroLexID | Dorlands | DorlandsID | DorlandsPre | DorlandsSuf | TH | TE | FMA | MeshName | Meshname | MeSHname | MeshYear | MeshNumber | BamsSlug | GraySubject | GrayPage}}{{safesubst:#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown= | neuron_name | name | image | image_neuron | image_size | alt | caption | caption_neuron | image2 | image2_neuron | image2_size | alt2 | caption2 | caption2_neuron | ImageMap | Imagemap | image_map | MapWidth | map_caption | MapCaption | Latin | location | function | neurotransmitter | morphology | afferents | efferents | GraySubject | GrayPage | MeshName | MeshYear | MeshNumber | Meshnumber | MeSHnumber | NeuroLexID | NeuroLex | Dorlands | DorlandsPre | DorlandsSuf | DorlandsID | Code }} A neuron ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} NYEWR-on or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} NEWR-on; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. These signals between neurons occur via synapses, specialized connections with other cells. Neurons can connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Specialized types of neurons include: sensory neurons which respond to touch, sound, light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs that then send signals to the spinal cord and brain, motor neurons that receive signals from the brain and spinal cord to cause muscle contractions and affect glandular outputs, and interneurons which connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain, or spinal cord in neural networks.

A typical neuron consists of a cell body (soma), dendrites, and an axon. The term neurite is used to describe either a dendrite or an axon, particularly in its undifferentiated stage. Dendrites are thin structures that arise from the cell body, often extending for hundreds of micrometres and branching multiple times, giving rise to a complex "dendritic tree". An axon (also called a nerve fiber when myelinated) is a special cellular extension (process) that arises from the cell body at a site called the axon hillock and travels for a distance, as far as 1 meter in humans or even more in other species. Nerve fibers are often bundled into fascicles, and in the peripheral nervous system, bundles of fascicles make up nerves (like strands of wire make up cables). The cell body of a neuron frequently gives rise to multiple dendrites, but never to more than one axon, although the axon may branch hundreds of times before it terminates. At the majority of synapses, signals are sent from the axon of one neuron to a dendrite of another. There are, however, many exceptions to these rules: neurons that lack dendrites, neurons that have no axon, synapses that connect an axon to another axon or a dendrite to another dendrite, etc.

All neurons are electrically excitable, maintaining voltage gradients across their membranes by means of metabolically driven ion pumps, which combine with ion channels embedded in the membrane to generate intracellular-versus-extracellular concentration differences of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. Changes in the cross-membrane voltage can alter the function of voltage-dependent ion channels. If the voltage changes by a large enough amount, an all-or-none electrochemical pulse called an action potential is generated, which travels rapidly along the cell's axon, and activates synaptic connections with other cells when it arrives.

Neurons do not undergo cell division. In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells. Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that have also been observed to turn into neurons by virtue of the stem cell characteristic pluripotency. In humans, neurogenesis largely ceases during adulthood; but in two brain areas, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, there is strong evidence for generation of substantial numbers of new neurons.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name=r1>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Neuron sections
Intro  Overview  Anatomy and histology  Classification  Connectivity  Mechanisms for propagating action potentials  Neural coding  All-or-none principle  History  Neurons in the brain  Neurological disorders  Nerve regeneration  Computational power  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Overview
<<>>