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Neoliberalism<ref>or sometimes neo-liberalism, see for example "Contesting Neo-Liberalism",of Studies in Political Economy, Vol 63 (2000) </ref> is a term whose usage and definition have changed over time.<ref name=Boas2009>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Since the 1980s, the term has been used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> and critics<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> primarily in reference to the resurgence of 19th century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism. Beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, its advocates supported extensive economic liberalization policies such as privatization, fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, and reductions in government spending in order to enhance the role of the private sector in the economy.<ref name=Boas2009/><ref name = "For Business Ethics">Campbell Jones, Martin Parker, Rene Ten Bos (2005). For Business Ethics. Routledge. ISBN 0415311357. p. 100:

  • "Neoliberalism represents a set of ideas that caught on from the mid to late 1970s, and are famously associated with the economic policies introduced by Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States following their elections in 1979 and 1981. The 'neo' part of neoliberalism indicates that there is something new about it, suggesting that it is an updated version of older ideas about 'liberal economics' which has long argued that markets should be free from intervention by the state. In its simplest version, it reads: markets good, government bad."</ref><ref>Gérard Duménil and Dominique Lévy (2004). Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674011589 Retrieved 3 November 2014.</ref><ref>Thomas I. Palley (May 5, 2004). From Keynesianism to Neoliberalism: Shifting Paradigms in Economics. Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved November 11, 2014.</ref><ref>Jonathan Arac in Peter A. Hall and Michèle Lamont in Social Resilience in the Neoliberal Era (2013) pp xvi-xvii
  • The term is generally used by those who oppose it. People do not call themselves neoliberal; instead, they tag their enemies with the term.</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003</ref><ref>"Neo-Liberal Ideas". World Health Organization.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book }}</ref> Neoliberalism is famously associated with the economic policies introduced by Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States.<ref name = "For Business Ethics"/> The transition of consensus towards neoliberal policies and the acceptance of neoliberal economic theories in the 1970s are seen by some academics as the root of financialization, with the financial crisis of 2007–08 one of the ultimate results.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="BraedleyLuxton"/><ref name="StegerRoy">Manfred B. Steger and Ravi K. Roy, Neoliberalism: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, 2010), ISBN 019956051X, p. 123</ref><ref>Gérard Duménil and Dominique Lévy, The Crisis of Neoliberalism, (Harvard University Press, 2013), ISBN 0674072243</ref><ref>David M Kotz, The Rise and Fall of Neoliberal Capitalism, (Harvard University Press, 2015), ISBN 0674725654</ref>

Neoliberalism was originally an economic philosophy that emerged among European liberal scholars in the 1930s in an attempt to trace a so-called ‘Third’ or ‘Middle Way’ between the conflicting philosophies of classical liberalism and socialist planning.<ref>Philip Mirowski, Dieter Plehwe, The road from Mont Pèlerin: the making of the neoliberal thought collective, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 0-674-03318-3, p. 14-15: "An understanding of neoliberalism needs to take into account its dynamic character in confronting both socialist planning philosophies and classical lassiez-faire liberalism, rather than searching for timeless (essentialist) content."</ref> The impetus for this development arose from a desire to avoid repeating the economic failures of the early 1930s, which were mostly blamed on the economic policy of classical liberalism. In the decades that followed, the use of the term neoliberal tended to refer to theories at variance with the more laissez-faire doctrine of classical liberalism, and promoted instead a market economy under the guidance and rules of a strong state, a model which came to be known as the social market economy.

In the 1960s, usage of the term "neoliberal" heavily declined. When the term was reintroduced in the 1980s in connection with Augusto Pinochet’s economic reforms in Chile, the usage of the term had shifted. It had not only become a term with negative connotations employed principally by critics of market reform, but it also had shifted in meaning from a moderate form of liberalism to a more radical and laissez-faire capitalist set of ideas. Scholars now tended to associate it with the theories of economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.<ref name=Boas2009/> Once the new meaning of neoliberalism was established as a common usage among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused directly into the English-language study of political economy.<ref name=Boas2009/> Scholarship on the phenomenon of neoliberalism has been growing.<ref>Timothy Shenk (April 2, 2015). Booked #3: What Exactly is Neoliberalism? (Interview with political scientist Wendy Brown) Dissent. Retrieved April 16, 2015.</ref> The impact of the global 2008-09 crisis has also given rise to new scholarship that critiques neoliberalism and seeks developmental alternatives.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Neoliberalism sections
Intro   Terminology    Early history    Post-WWII neo-liberal currents   Economic schools of thought   Expanded definition    Policy implications    Reach and effects    Support    Opposition   Protest   See also    Notes    Bibliography and further reading    External links   

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|list1name = Concepts |list1title = Concepts |list1 =

|list2name = Systems |list2title = Economic systems |list2 =

|list3name = Theories |list3title = Economic theories |list3 =

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|list5name = Development |list5title = Development |list5 =

|list6name = People |list6title = People |list6 =

|list7name = Related |list7title = Related topics |list7 =

|list8name = Ideologies |list8title = Ideologies |list8 =

|belowclass = plainlist |below =

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Neoliberalism<ref>or sometimes neo-liberalism, see for example "Contesting Neo-Liberalism",of Studies in Political Economy, Vol 63 (2000) </ref> is a term whose usage and definition have changed over time.<ref name=Boas2009>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Since the 1980s, the term has been used by scholars in a wide variety of social sciences<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> and critics<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> primarily in reference to the resurgence of 19th century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism. Beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, its advocates supported extensive economic liberalization policies such as privatization, fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, and reductions in government spending in order to enhance the role of the private sector in the economy.<ref name=Boas2009/><ref name = "For Business Ethics">Campbell Jones, Martin Parker, Rene Ten Bos (2005). For Business Ethics. Routledge. ISBN 0415311357. p. 100:

  • "Neoliberalism represents a set of ideas that caught on from the mid to late 1970s, and are famously associated with the economic policies introduced by Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States following their elections in 1979 and 1981. The 'neo' part of neoliberalism indicates that there is something new about it, suggesting that it is an updated version of older ideas about 'liberal economics' which has long argued that markets should be free from intervention by the state. In its simplest version, it reads: markets good, government bad."</ref><ref>Gérard Duménil and Dominique Lévy (2004). Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674011589 Retrieved 3 November 2014.</ref><ref>Thomas I. Palley (May 5, 2004). From Keynesianism to Neoliberalism: Shifting Paradigms in Economics. Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved November 11, 2014.</ref><ref>Jonathan Arac in Peter A. Hall and Michèle Lamont in Social Resilience in the Neoliberal Era (2013) pp xvi-xvii
  • The term is generally used by those who oppose it. People do not call themselves neoliberal; instead, they tag their enemies with the term.</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003</ref><ref>"Neo-Liberal Ideas". World Health Organization.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book }}</ref> Neoliberalism is famously associated with the economic policies introduced by Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States.<ref name = "For Business Ethics"/> The transition of consensus towards neoliberal policies and the acceptance of neoliberal economic theories in the 1970s are seen by some academics as the root of financialization, with the financial crisis of 2007–08 one of the ultimate results.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="BraedleyLuxton"/><ref name="StegerRoy">Manfred B. Steger and Ravi K. Roy, Neoliberalism: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, 2010), ISBN 019956051X, p. 123</ref><ref>Gérard Duménil and Dominique Lévy, The Crisis of Neoliberalism, (Harvard University Press, 2013), ISBN 0674072243</ref><ref>David M Kotz, The Rise and Fall of Neoliberal Capitalism, (Harvard University Press, 2015), ISBN 0674725654</ref>

Neoliberalism was originally an economic philosophy that emerged among European liberal scholars in the 1930s in an attempt to trace a so-called ‘Third’ or ‘Middle Way’ between the conflicting philosophies of classical liberalism and socialist planning.<ref>Philip Mirowski, Dieter Plehwe, The road from Mont Pèlerin: the making of the neoliberal thought collective, Harvard University Press, 2009, ISBN 0-674-03318-3, p. 14-15: "An understanding of neoliberalism needs to take into account its dynamic character in confronting both socialist planning philosophies and classical lassiez-faire liberalism, rather than searching for timeless (essentialist) content."</ref> The impetus for this development arose from a desire to avoid repeating the economic failures of the early 1930s, which were mostly blamed on the economic policy of classical liberalism. In the decades that followed, the use of the term neoliberal tended to refer to theories at variance with the more laissez-faire doctrine of classical liberalism, and promoted instead a market economy under the guidance and rules of a strong state, a model which came to be known as the social market economy.

In the 1960s, usage of the term "neoliberal" heavily declined. When the term was reintroduced in the 1980s in connection with Augusto Pinochet’s economic reforms in Chile, the usage of the term had shifted. It had not only become a term with negative connotations employed principally by critics of market reform, but it also had shifted in meaning from a moderate form of liberalism to a more radical and laissez-faire capitalist set of ideas. Scholars now tended to associate it with the theories of economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman.<ref name=Boas2009/> Once the new meaning of neoliberalism was established as a common usage among Spanish-speaking scholars, it diffused directly into the English-language study of political economy.<ref name=Boas2009/> Scholarship on the phenomenon of neoliberalism has been growing.<ref>Timothy Shenk (April 2, 2015). Booked #3: What Exactly is Neoliberalism? (Interview with political scientist Wendy Brown) Dissent. Retrieved April 16, 2015.</ref> The impact of the global 2008-09 crisis has also given rise to new scholarship that critiques neoliberalism and seeks developmental alternatives.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Neoliberalism sections
Intro   Terminology    Early history    Post-WWII neo-liberal currents   Economic schools of thought   Expanded definition    Policy implications    Reach and effects    Support    Opposition   Protest   See also    Notes    Bibliography and further reading    External links   

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