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The nematodes {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda. They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a very broad range of environments. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish, and although over 25,000 have been described,<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> of which more than half are parasitic, the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.<ref name="Lambshead 1993"> {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }} </ref> Unlike the phyla Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes (flatworms), nematodes have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends.

Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine (salt water) to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as mountains, deserts and oceanic trenches. They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere.<ref name="Borgonie 2011" /> They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor.<ref name="pmid18164201">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Their numerical dominance, often exceeding a million individuals per square meter and accounting for about 80% of all individual animals on earth, their diversity of life cycles, and their presence at various trophic levels point at an important role in many ecosystems.<ref name="isbn0-903874-22-9">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Nematodes have even been found at great depth (0.9–3.6 km) below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa.<ref name="Lemonick 2011" /><ref name="Bhanoo 2011" /><ref name="Nature 2011-06-02" /><ref name="Drake 2011-06-01" /><ref name="Borgonie 2011-06-02" />

Their many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals (including humans).<ref>Hsueh YP, Leighton DHW, Sternberg PW. (2014). Nematode Communication. In: Witzany G (ed). Biocommunication of Animals. Springer, 383-407. ISBN 978-94-007-7413-1.</ref> Some nematodes can undergo cryptobiosis. One group of carnivorous fungi, the nematophagous fungi, are predators of soil nematodes. They set enticements for the nematodes in the form of lassos or adhesive structures.<ref name="Pramer 1964" /><ref name="Hauser_1985">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Ahrén 1998" />

Nathan Cobb the nematologist, described the ubiquity of nematodes on Earth thus:
In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembodied spirits, we could then investigate it, we should find its mountains, hills, vales, rivers, lakes, and oceans represented by a film of nematodes. The location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes. Trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our streets and highways. The location of the various plants and animals would still be decipherable, and, had we sufficient knowledge, in many cases even their species could be determined by an examination of their erstwhile nematode parasites."<ref name = "Cobb_1914">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book

}} Quote on p. 472.</ref>

Nematode sections
Intro   Taxonomy and systematics    Anatomy    Reproduction    Free-living species    Parasitic species    Epidemiology   Soil ecosystems  Society and culture   See also    Notes    References    Further reading    External links   

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Title::journal    Nematode::pages    Author::species    Issue::volume    First::nematode    Nematoda::which

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Automatic taxobox help
Thanks for creating an automatic taxobox. We don't know the taxonomy of "Nematoda".
  • Is "Nematoda" the scientific name of your taxon? If you were editing the page "Animal", you'd need to specify |taxon=Animalia. If you've changed this, press "Preview" to update this message.
  • Click here to enter the taxonomic details for "Nematoda".
Common parameters
  • |authority= Who described the taxon
  • |parent authority= Who described the next taxon up the list
  • |display parents=4 force the display of (e.g.) 4 parent taxa
  • |display children= Display any subdivisions already in Wikipedia's database (e.g. genera within a family)
Helpful links

The nematodes {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda. They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a very broad range of environments. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish, and although over 25,000 have been described,<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> of which more than half are parasitic, the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.<ref name="Lambshead 1993"> {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }} </ref> Unlike the phyla Cnidarians and Platyhelminthes (flatworms), nematodes have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends.

Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine (salt water) to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as mountains, deserts and oceanic trenches. They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere.<ref name="Borgonie 2011" /> They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor.<ref name="pmid18164201">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Their numerical dominance, often exceeding a million individuals per square meter and accounting for about 80% of all individual animals on earth, their diversity of life cycles, and their presence at various trophic levels point at an important role in many ecosystems.<ref name="isbn0-903874-22-9">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Nematodes have even been found at great depth (0.9–3.6 km) below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa.<ref name="Lemonick 2011" /><ref name="Bhanoo 2011" /><ref name="Nature 2011-06-02" /><ref name="Drake 2011-06-01" /><ref name="Borgonie 2011-06-02" />

Their many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals (including humans).<ref>Hsueh YP, Leighton DHW, Sternberg PW. (2014). Nematode Communication. In: Witzany G (ed). Biocommunication of Animals. Springer, 383-407. ISBN 978-94-007-7413-1.</ref> Some nematodes can undergo cryptobiosis. One group of carnivorous fungi, the nematophagous fungi, are predators of soil nematodes. They set enticements for the nematodes in the form of lassos or adhesive structures.<ref name="Pramer 1964" /><ref name="Hauser_1985">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="Ahrén 1998" />

Nathan Cobb the nematologist, described the ubiquity of nematodes on Earth thus:
In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembodied spirits, we could then investigate it, we should find its mountains, hills, vales, rivers, lakes, and oceans represented by a film of nematodes. The location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes. Trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our streets and highways. The location of the various plants and animals would still be decipherable, and, had we sufficient knowledge, in many cases even their species could be determined by an examination of their erstwhile nematode parasites."<ref name = "Cobb_1914">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book

}} Quote on p. 472.</ref>

Nematode sections
Intro   Taxonomy and systematics    Anatomy    Reproduction    Free-living species    Parasitic species    Epidemiology   Soil ecosystems  Society and culture   See also    Notes    References    Further reading    External links   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Taxonomy and systematics
<<>>