Actions

::Needs assessment

::concepts



A needs assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions or "wants". The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to appropriately identify the need. The need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a deficiency.<ref>http://www.adprima.com/needs.htm Kizlik, B., "Needs Assessment Information", ADPRIMA, last access 16 October 2010.</ref>

A needs assessment is a part of planning processes, often used for improvement in individuals, education/training, organizations, or communities. It can refine and improve a product such as a training or service a client receives. It can be an effective tool to clarify problems and identify appropriate interventions or solutions.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> By clearly identifying the problem, finite resources can be directed towards developing and implementing a feasible and applicable solution.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Gathering appropriate and sufficient data informs the process of developing an effective product that will address the groups needs and wants.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Needs assessments are only effective when they are ends-focused and provide concrete evidence that can be used to determine which of the possible means-to-the-ends are most effective and efficient for achieving the desired results.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Needs assessments can help improve the quality of policy or program decisions—thus leading to improvements in performance and the accomplishment of desired results. Improving results—that is, moving from current to desired performance— is typically a worthwhile and valuable (and often valiant) effort. The results of a needs assessment will guide subsequent decisions—including the design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs that will lead to achieving desired results.<ref>Watkins, R., West Meiers, M. and Visser, Y. (2012). A Guide to Assessing Needs: Tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. Washington, DC: World Bank.p.5</ref>

There are three perspectives on need in a needs assessment; perceived need, expressed need and relative need.

  1. Perceived needs are defined by what people think about their needs, each standard changes with each respondent.
  2. Expressed needs are defined by the number of people who have sought help and focuses on circumstances where feelings are translated into action. A major weakness of expressed needs assumes that all people with needs seek help.
  3. Relative needs are concerned with equity and must consider differences in population and social pathology.

<ref> Bradshaw, J. (1972). The concept of need. New Society, 30, 640-643. Kettner, P.M., Moroney, R.M., Martin, L.L. (2008). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach. Los Angeles, Sage. Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row. Ponsioen, J. (1962). Social welfare policy: Contributions to theory. The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton. Wallace, H., Gold, E., & Dooley, S. (1967). Availability and usefulness of selected health and socioeconomic data for community planning. American Journal of Public Health, 57, 762-771. http://www.needsassessment.org/ </ref>

Within a performance improvement framework, needs assessments play a critical role in starting the improvement process (see Figure A). Assessments inform future decisions; at the same time, they are informed by the results of past decisions. Needs assessments thereby link together past and future performance, guiding decisions throughout the improvement effort.<ref>Watkins, R., West Meiers, M. and Visser, Y. (2012). A Guide to Assessing Needs: Tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. Washington, DC: World Bank.pg.7</ref>


Needs assessment sections
Intro   History    Applications    Extensive needs assessment vs. intensive needs assessment   Examples of Extensive vs. Intensive Needs Assessments  Needs chain model  Conducting a needs chain model  Training needs assessments  Conducting a training needs analysis  Community needs assessment   Conducting a community level needs assessment   Examples of community needs assessment  References  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: History
<<>>

Needs::needs    First::title    Training::level    Which::about    Analysis::results    Service::location

A needs assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions or "wants". The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to appropriately identify the need. The need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a deficiency.<ref>http://www.adprima.com/needs.htm Kizlik, B., "Needs Assessment Information", ADPRIMA, last access 16 October 2010.</ref>

A needs assessment is a part of planning processes, often used for improvement in individuals, education/training, organizations, or communities. It can refine and improve a product such as a training or service a client receives. It can be an effective tool to clarify problems and identify appropriate interventions or solutions.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> By clearly identifying the problem, finite resources can be directed towards developing and implementing a feasible and applicable solution.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Gathering appropriate and sufficient data informs the process of developing an effective product that will address the groups needs and wants.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Needs assessments are only effective when they are ends-focused and provide concrete evidence that can be used to determine which of the possible means-to-the-ends are most effective and efficient for achieving the desired results.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Needs assessments can help improve the quality of policy or program decisions—thus leading to improvements in performance and the accomplishment of desired results. Improving results—that is, moving from current to desired performance— is typically a worthwhile and valuable (and often valiant) effort. The results of a needs assessment will guide subsequent decisions—including the design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and programs that will lead to achieving desired results.<ref>Watkins, R., West Meiers, M. and Visser, Y. (2012). A Guide to Assessing Needs: Tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. Washington, DC: World Bank.p.5</ref>

There are three perspectives on need in a needs assessment; perceived need, expressed need and relative need.

  1. Perceived needs are defined by what people think about their needs, each standard changes with each respondent.
  2. Expressed needs are defined by the number of people who have sought help and focuses on circumstances where feelings are translated into action. A major weakness of expressed needs assumes that all people with needs seek help.
  3. Relative needs are concerned with equity and must consider differences in population and social pathology.

<ref> Bradshaw, J. (1972). The concept of need. New Society, 30, 640-643. Kettner, P.M., Moroney, R.M., Martin, L.L. (2008). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach. Los Angeles, Sage. Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row. Ponsioen, J. (1962). Social welfare policy: Contributions to theory. The Hague, the Netherlands: Mouton. Wallace, H., Gold, E., & Dooley, S. (1967). Availability and usefulness of selected health and socioeconomic data for community planning. American Journal of Public Health, 57, 762-771. http://www.needsassessment.org/ </ref>

Within a performance improvement framework, needs assessments play a critical role in starting the improvement process (see Figure A). Assessments inform future decisions; at the same time, they are informed by the results of past decisions. Needs assessments thereby link together past and future performance, guiding decisions throughout the improvement effort.<ref>Watkins, R., West Meiers, M. and Visser, Y. (2012). A Guide to Assessing Needs: Tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. Washington, DC: World Bank.pg.7</ref>


Needs assessment sections
Intro   History    Applications    Extensive needs assessment vs. intensive needs assessment   Examples of Extensive vs. Intensive Needs Assessments  Needs chain model  Conducting a needs chain model  Training needs assessments  Conducting a training needs analysis  Community needs assessment   Conducting a community level needs assessment   Examples of community needs assessment  References  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: History
<<>>