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Muhammad<ref group="n">Full name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (Arabic: ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim)</ref> (Arabic: محمد‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; c. 570 CE; 8 June 632 CE<ref name=Goldman>Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam,{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.</ref>) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and almost universally<ref group="n">The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet. See:

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|CitationClass=web }}</ref> considered by Muslims to have been the last prophet sent by God to mankind<ref>Quran 33:40</ref><ref group="n">There are smaller sects which too believe Muhammad to be not the last Prophet: The Nation of Islam considers Elijah Muhammad to be a prophet (source: African American Religious Leaders – Page 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson – 2008). United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet. (Source: Daniel Pipes, Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics, page 98 (2004))</ref> to restore Islam, which they believe to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.<ref name="espos12">Esposito (1998), p. 12.</ref><ref>Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> By the time of his death, he had united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and had ensured that his teachings and practice together with the Quran, which Muslims believe was revealed to him by God, formed the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Born approximately in 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca,<ref name="abraha">

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|CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="EncWorldHistory">Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p. 452</ref> Muhammad was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib. After his childhood Muhammad primarily worked as a merchant.<ref name="IntroQuran182">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 182</ref> Occasionally he would retreat to a cave in the mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer; later, at age 40, he reported at this spot,<ref name="abraha"/><ref name="IntroQuran184">An Introduction to the Quran (1895), p. 184</ref> that he was visited by Gabriel and received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" (lit. islām) to him is the only way (dīn)<ref group="n">'Islam' is always referred to in the Quran as a dīn, a word that means "way" or "path" in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as "religion" for the sake of convenience</ref> acceptable to God, and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.<ref name = "Peters 2003 9">F. E. Peters (2003), p. 9.</ref><ref name="EspositoI">Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5</ref><ref name="EoI-Muhammad"></ref>

Muhammad gained few followers early on, and met hostility from some Meccan tribes. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. After eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The attack went largely uncontested and Muhammad took over the city with little bloodshed. He destroyed the three-hundred and sixty pagan idols at the Kaaba, in the city.<ref>Sahih-Bukhari, Book 43, #658</ref> In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. Before his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, so by the time of his death, he had united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and ensured that his teachings and practice together with the Quran, which Muslims believe was revealed to him by God, formed the basis of Islamic religious belief.<ref>"Muhammad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world </ref><ref name="Lapidus 2002 pp 0"> See:

  • Holt (1977a), p.57
  • Lapidus (2002), pp 0.31 and 32

</ref>

The revelations (each known as Ayah, lit. "Sign [of God]"), which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira literature, are also upheld by Muslims and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia). While conceptions of Muhammad in medieval Christendom were largely negative, appraisals in modern history have been far more favorable.<ref name="EoI-Muhammad"/><ref>Watt (1974) p. 231</ref> Other appraisals of Muhammad throughout history, such as those found in medieval China, have also been positive.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>Benite (2005), p.187</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Muhammad sections
Intro  Names and appellations in the Quran  Sources for Muhammad's life  Pre-Islamic Arabia  Life  Early social changes under Islam  Appearance  Household  Legacy  See also  Notes  References  Bibliography  Further reading  External links  

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