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Transportation {{#invoke:main|main}}

Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion, especially from cities in the west island such as Pointe-Claire and Beaconsfield, and off-island suburbs such as Laval on Île Jésus, and Longueuil on the south shore. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. There are only four road bridges along with one road tunnel, two railway bridges, and a Metro line. The far narrower Rivière des Prairies, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by eight road bridges (six to Laval and two directly to the north shore) and a Metro line.

The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), A-15 (aka the Decarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), A-20, A-25, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), A-520, and A-720 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour.<ref name="epomm">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the extension of Quebec Autoroute 30 on Montreal's south shore, which will serve as a bypass.<ref name="TransportsQuebec">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Société de transport de Montréal


Acadie metro station.
An STM Novabus operating on Route 80

Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. The subway and bus system are operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM). The STM bus network consists of 197 daytime and 20 nighttime routes. STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010.<ref name=""></ref> It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize.

The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is Canada's busiest subway system in total daily passenger usage, serving 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010).<ref name="" /> Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. The Metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, and has recently been extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

The commuter rail system is managed and operated by the Agence métropolitaine de transport, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal with six lines. It carried an average of 79,000 daily passengers in 2014, making it the sixth busiest in North America following New York City, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, and Toronto.<ref name="EMTA">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as Dorval Airport) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada<ref name="Air Canada Centre">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and Air Transat.<ref name="Air Transat Head Office">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> To the north of the city is Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services.<ref name="Last passengers leave Mirabel, November 1, 2004">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="medivac">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="flight1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="fleet">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 2014, Montreal-Trudeau was the fourth busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and by aircraft movements, behind Toronto Pearson, Vancouver and Calgary, handling 14.84 million passengers,<ref name="CYUL2014">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="move">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and 219,326 aircraft movements.<ref name="2014move">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> With 60.8% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport.<ref name="pax">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Trudeau airport is served by 40 carriers to over 100 destinations worldwide.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Airlines serving Trudeau offer flights to Europe, the United States, Western Asia, the Middle East, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Mexico and other destinations within Canada and it contains the largest duty-free shop in North America.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


The Agence métropolitaine de transport runs commuter trains serving Greater Montreal such as this one on the Vaudreuil-Hudson Line.

Montreal-based VIA Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its Adirondack daily to New York City. All intercity trains and most commuter trains operate out of Central Station.

Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, was founded here in 1881.<ref name="CPR">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street until 1995.<ref name=CE-CP /> With the Port of Montreal kept open year round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the railway's eastern and intermodal freight terminus.<ref name="CP-Map">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> CPR connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, the Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway to Halifax, and CN Rail. The CPR's flagship train, The Canadian, ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but all passenger services have since been transferred to VIA Rail Canada and the Canadian terminates in Toronto.

Montreal-based Canadian National Railways (CN) was formed during in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. It was formed from the Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada.<ref name="CN-History">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Like the CPR, CN has divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via Rail Canada.<ref name="CN-Hist2">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> CN's flagship train, the Super Continental, ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver, but after it was transferred to Via it was eliminated in 1990.

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