Actions

Geography::Montreal

::concepts

Montreal::title    Canada::montr    Quebec::canadian    First::montreal    French::march    District::thumb

Geography {{#invoke:main|main}}

Montreal is in the southwest of the province of Quebec. The city covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. The port of Montreal lies at one end of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the river gateway that stretches from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic.<ref name="Great Canadian Rivers">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Montreal is defined by its location between the Saint Lawrence river to its south and the Rivière des Prairies to its north. The city is named after the most prominent geographical feature on the island, a three-head hill called Mount Royal, topped at 232 m above sea level.<ref name="Natural Resources Canada">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Montreal is at the centre of the Montreal Metropolitan Community, and is bordered by the city of Laval to the north; Longueuil, Saint-Lambert, Brossard, and other municipalities to the south; Repentigny to the east and the West Island municipalities to the west. The anglophone enclaves of Westmount, Montreal West, Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc, the Town of Mount Royal and the francophone enclave Montreal East are all surrounded by Montreal.<ref name="City Map">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Climate

Montreal lies in a transition between the warm-summer and hot-summer humid continental climate zones (Köppen climate classification: Dfa/Dfb because of the mean temperature in July being just below {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}),<ref name="Köppen">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Climate-Data.org">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Summers are, on the whole, warm and humid with a daily maximum average of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} in July; temperatures in excess of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} are common. Conversely, cold fronts can bring crisp, drier and windy weather in the early and later parts of summer.

Winter brings cold, snowy, windy, and, at times, icy weather, with a daily average ranging from {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} in January. However, some winter days rise above freezing, allowing for rain on an average of 4 days in January and February each. Usually, snow covering some or all bare ground lasts on average from the first or second week of December until the last week of March.<ref name="CurrentResults.com">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> While the air temperature does not fall below {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} every year,<ref name="Montreal Weather Data">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> the wind chill often makes the temperature feel this low to exposed skin.

Spring and fall are pleasantly mild but prone to drastic temperature changes; spring even more so than fall.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Late season heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are possible. Early and late season snow storms can occur in November and March, and more rarely in April. Montreal is generally snow free from April 15 to November 15.

The lowest temperature in Environment Canada's books was {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature was {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} on August 1, 1975, both at Dorval International Airport.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Before modern weather record keeping (which dates back to 1871 for McGill),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> a minimum temperature almost 5 degrees lower was recorded at 7 a.m. on January 10, 1859, where it registered at {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Annual precipitation is around {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, including an average of about {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} of snowfall, which occurs from November through March. Thunderstorms are common in the period beginning in late spring through summer to early fall; additionally, tropical storms or their remnants can cause heavy rains and gales. Montreal averages 2,050 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest season, though slightly wetter than the others in terms of total precipitation — mostly from thunderstorms.<ref name="PET stats" />

- {{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = sun {{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = percentsun
colspan="14" Climate data for Montreal, Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = maximum humidex

color_scheme = t label = Record high humidex | annual_mode = max }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = temperature | group_name = record high

color_scheme = t label = Record high °C (°F) annual_mode = max }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = temperature | group_name = high

color_scheme = t label = Average high °C (°F) annual_mode = avg }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = temperature | group_name = mean

color_scheme = t label = Daily mean °C (°F) annual_mode = avg }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = temperature | group_name = low

color_scheme = t label = Average low °C (°F) annual_mode = avg }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = temperature | group_name = record low

color_scheme = t label = Record low °C (°F) annual_mode = min }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = chill

color_scheme = t label = Record low wind chill annual_mode = min }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = precipitation | group_name = precipitation

date_mode=true prefer_cm = Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{". label = Average precipitation mm (inches) annual_mode = sum }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = precipitation | group_name = rain

date_mode=true prefer_cm = Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "{". label = Average rainfall mm (inches) annual_mode = sum }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = precipitation | group_name = snow | prefer_cm = true

date_mode=true scale_factor = 1 label = Average snowfall cm (inches) annual_mode = sum }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = precipitation days

date_mode = true | scale_factor = 1 label = Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) annual_mode = sum }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = rain days

date_mode = true | scale_factor = 1 label = Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) annual_mode = sum }}

{{#invoke: WeatherBox | buildRow | mode = basic | group_name = snow days

date_mode = true | scale_factor = 1 label = Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) annual_mode = sum }}
date_mode = true | scale_factor = 1 label = Mean monthly sunshine hours annual_mode = sum }}
color_scheme = s label = Percent possible sunshine | annual_mode = avg }}
colspan="14" style="text-align:center;font-size:95%;" Source: Environment Canada<ref name="PET stats">.{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation CitationClass=web

}}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

CitationClass=web

}}</ref>


Montreal sections
Intro   Etymology    History    Geography    Architecture    Neighbourhoods    Demographics    Culture    Sports    Media    Government    Education    Transportation    Notable people    International relations    See also    References    Further reading    External links   

Geography
PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Etymology
<<>>