::Mongol Empire

::concepts

Mongol::mongols    Empire::dynasty    China::their    Title::genghis    Books::empire    Thumb::morgan

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" Ikh Mongol Uls ="3" style="vertical-align:middle; text-align:center; font-size:115%;"Nomadic empire ="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
Location of Mongol EmpireMongolian Empire


="2" Capital ="width:50%;" {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}


="2" Languages {{safesubst:#invoke:list|horizontal}}

="2" Religion {{safesubst:#invoke:list|horizontal}}

="2" Great Khan || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1206–1227 Genghis Khan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1229–1241 Ögedei Khan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1246–1248 Güyük Khan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1251–1259 Möngke Khan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1260–1294 Kublai Khan (Nominal) - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1333–1368 Toghan Temür Khan (Nominal) - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - ="2" LegislatureKurultai ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Death of Genghis Khan ="vertical-align: bottom;"1227 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Pax Mongolica ="vertical-align: bottom;"1250–1350 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Empire fragments ="vertical-align: bottom;"1260–1294 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Collapse of the
Chagatai Khanate
="vertical-align: bottom;"1687 ="3" Area - class="mergedbottomrow" style="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1279<ref>Jonathan M. Adams, Thomas D. Hall and Peter Turchin (2006). East-West Orientation of Historical Empires.Journal of World-Systems Research (University of Connecticut). 12 (no. 2): 219–229.</ref><ref>Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.</ref> 33,000,000 km² (12,741,371 sq mi) - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="2" Currency Various <ref group="note">Including coins such as dirhams and paper currencies based on silver (sukhe) or silk, or the later Chao currency of the Yuan dynasty.</ref> ="3" { style="width:95%; background: transparent; text-align:center; margin:0 auto;" - style="text-align:center; border:0; padding-bottom:0"
Preceded by style="text-align:center;border:0; padding-bottom:0;" Succeeded by

- style="vertical-align:top; text-align:center; border:0;" { style="width:100%; background: transparent; text-align:center; margin:0 auto; border:0;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Khamag Mongol - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" [[Khwarazmian EmpireKhwarazmian Empire]] - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" [[Qara KhitaiQara Khitai]] - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Jīn dynasty - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Song dynasty - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Western Xia - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Abbasid Caliphate - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Nizari Ismaili state - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Kievan Rus' - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Volga Bulgaria - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Cumania - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" 22px ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Alania - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Kingdom of Dali - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Kimek Khanate - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:left;" Sultanate of Rum } style="vertical-align:top; text-align:center;border:0;" { style="width:92%; background:transparent; text-align:center; margin:0 auto; border:0;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Chagatai KhanateChagatai Khanate]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" Golden Horde ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" Ilkhanate ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Yuan dynastyYuan dynasty]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Northern Yuan dynastyNorthern Yuan dynasty]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Timurid EmpireTimurid Empire]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Anatolian BeyliksAnatolian Beyliks]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" 22px - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Mamluk SultanateMamluk Sultanate]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" 22px - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Grand Duchy of LithuaniaGrand Duchy of Lithuania]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" - ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle; text-align:right;" [[Kingdom of Poland (1025-1385)Kingdom of Poland]] ="border:0; padding:0; vertical-align:middle;" -

-

-

-

-

} }

="2" Today part of

  {{safesubst:#invoke:collapsible list|main}}
Mongol Empire
1206–1368
Government Elective monarchy;
later also hereditary
History
 •  Genghis Khan proclaims
the Mongol Empire
1206
 •  Fall of Yuan dynasty 1368

{{#invoke:Navbox|navbox}} The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren About this sound listen ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.<ref>Morgan. The Mongols. p. 5.</ref> Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and Arabia.

The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongolia homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan, who was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and then under his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction.<ref>Diamond. Guns, Germs, and Steel. p. 367.</ref><ref>The Mongols and Russia, by George Vernadsky</ref><ref>The Mongol World Empire, 1206–1370, by John Andrew Boyle</ref><ref>The History of China, by David Curtis Wright. p. 84.</ref><ref>The Early Civilization of China, by Yong Yap Cotterell, Arthur Cotterell. p. 223.</ref><ref>Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260–1281 by Reuven Amitai-Preiss</ref> The vast transcontinental empire connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica allowing trade, technologies, commodities, and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.<ref>Gregory G.Guzman "Were the barbarians a negative or positive factor in ancient and medieval history?", The Historian 50 (1988), 568-70.</ref><ref>Allsen. Culture and Conquest. p. 211.</ref>

The empire began to split due to wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from his son and initial heir Ögedei, or one of his other sons such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. After Möngke Khan died, rival kurultai councils simultaneously elected different successors, the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai Khan, who then not only fought each other in the Toluid Civil War, but also dealt with challenges from descendants of other sons of Genghis.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>Michael Biran. Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State in Central Asia. The Curzon Press, 1997, ISBN 0-7007-0631-3</ref> Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued as Kublai sought unsuccessfully to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families.

The Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 marked the high-water point of the Mongol conquests and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. Though the Mongols launched many more invasions into the Levant, briefly occupying it and raiding as far as Gaza after a decisive victory at the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar in 1299, they withdrew due to various geopolitical factors.

By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest; the Chagatai Khanate in the middle; the Ilkhanate in the southwest; and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing.<ref name="China p413">The Cambridge History of China: Alien Regimes and Border States. p. 413.</ref> In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty,<ref>Jackson. Mongols and the West. p. 127.</ref><ref>Allsen. Culture and Conquest. pp. xiii, 235.</ref> but it was later overthrown by the Han Chinese Ming dynasty in 1368. The Genghisid rulers of the Yuan retreated to the Mongolia homeland and continued to rule the Northern Yuan dynasty, while the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate lasted in one form or another for some additional centuries after the fall of the Yuan dynasty and the Ilkhanate.


Mongol Empire sections
Intro   Name    History   Military organization  Society  Legacy  See also  Notes   References   Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Name
<<>>