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{{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}} The Mishnah or Mishna ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Hebrew: , "study by repetition"), from the verb shanah שנה{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, or "to study and review", also "secondary,"<ref>The same meaning is suggested by the term Deuterosis ("doubling" or "repetition" in Ancient Greek) used in Roman law and Patristic literature. However it is not always clear from the context whether the reference is to the Mishnah or to the Targum, which could be regarded as a "doubling" of the Torah reading.</ref> is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic literature.<ref>The list of joyful days known as Megillat Taanit is older, but according to the Talmud it is no longer in force.</ref><ref name=WDL1>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The earliest known copy of the Mishnah has additions, and is contained within a book featuring commentary that was printed in Naples Italy during the late 15th century.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The Mishnah was redacted by Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi before his death around 217 CE,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> in a time when, according to the Talmud, the persecution of the Jews and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period (536 BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten. The majority of the Mishnah is written in Mishnaic Hebrew, while some parts are Aramaic.

The Mishnah consists of six orders (sedarim{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, singular seder{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} סדר{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), each containing 7–12 tractates (masechtot{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, singular masechet{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} מסכת{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; lit. "web"), 63 in total, and further subdivided into chapters and paragraphs or verses.

The word Mishnah can also indicate a single paragraph or a verse of the work itself, i.e. the smallest unit of structure in the Mishnah. For this reason the whole work is sometimes called by the plural, Mishnayot{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}.

Mishnah sections
Intro  Structure  Content and purpose  Authorship  Acceptance  Mishnah studies  Cultural references  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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