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Error creating thumbnail:
Jalal al-Din Khwarazm-Shah crossing the rapid Indus River, escaping Genghis Khan and the Mongol army.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال ‌الدین خوارزمشاه; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire. Following the defeat of his father, Ala ad-Din Muhammad II by Genghis Khan in 1220, Jalal ad-Din Mengübirti came to power but he rejected the title shah that his father had assumed and called himself simply sultan. Jalal ad-Din retreated with the remaining Khwarazm forces, while pursued by a Mongol army and at the battle of Parwan, north of Kabul, defeated the Mongols.<ref>John Man, Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection, (St.Martin's Press, 1994), 181.</ref>

Due to the Mongol invasion, the sacking of Samarkand and being deserted by his Afghan allies, Jalal ad-Din was forced to flee to India.<ref>Trevor N. Dupuy and R. Ernest Dupuy, The Harpers Encyclopedia of Military History, (Harper Collins Publishers, 1993), 366.</ref> At the Indus River, however, the Mongols caught up with him and killed his forces along with thousands of refugees at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi but Iltutmish denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu spent three years in exile in India. Mingburnu entered into an alliance with the Khokhars and captured Lahore and much of the Punjab. He requested an alliance with Iltutmish against the Mongols . The Sultan of Delhi refused, not wishing to get into a conflict with Genghis Khan, and marched towards Lahore at the head of a large army. Mingburnu retreated from Lahore and moved towards Uchch inflicting a heavy defeat on its ruler Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, and plundered Sindh and northern Gujarat before returning to Persia in 1224. <ref name="Chandra40">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}.</ref>

He gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power however, and he spent the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, pretenders to the throne and the Seljuk Turks of Rum. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz mountains and fled to the Caucasus, to capture Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up their capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi, destroying all the churches and massacring the city's Christian population.<ref>Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 260</ref>

Jalal ad-Din had a brief victory over the Seljuks and captured the town Akhlat from Ayyubids. However, he was later defeated by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen (Yassi Chemen) in 1230, from where he escaped to Diyarbakir while the Mongols captured Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 in Diyarbakir by a Kurdish assassin hired by the Seljuks or possibly by Kurdish highwaymen.<ref>[1], PHI, Persian Literature in Translation</ref><ref>[2], Encyclopedia Iranica</ref>


Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu sections
Intro  Notes  References  

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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}

Error creating thumbnail:
Jalal al-Din Khwarazm-Shah crossing the rapid Indus River, escaping Genghis Khan and the Mongol army.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu (Persian: جلال ‌الدین خوارزمشاه; full name: Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Manguberdi ibn Muhammad) or Manguberdi (Turkic for "Godgiven"), also known as Jalâl ad-Dîn Khwârazmshâh, was the last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire. Following the defeat of his father, Ala ad-Din Muhammad II by Genghis Khan in 1220, Jalal ad-Din Mengübirti came to power but he rejected the title shah that his father had assumed and called himself simply sultan. Jalal ad-Din retreated with the remaining Khwarazm forces, while pursued by a Mongol army and at the battle of Parwan, north of Kabul, defeated the Mongols.<ref>John Man, Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection, (St.Martin's Press, 1994), 181.</ref>

Due to the Mongol invasion, the sacking of Samarkand and being deserted by his Afghan allies, Jalal ad-Din was forced to flee to India.<ref>Trevor N. Dupuy and R. Ernest Dupuy, The Harpers Encyclopedia of Military History, (Harper Collins Publishers, 1993), 366.</ref> At the Indus River, however, the Mongols caught up with him and killed his forces along with thousands of refugees at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi but Iltutmish denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abbasid caliphs.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu spent three years in exile in India. Mingburnu entered into an alliance with the Khokhars and captured Lahore and much of the Punjab. He requested an alliance with Iltutmish against the Mongols . The Sultan of Delhi refused, not wishing to get into a conflict with Genghis Khan, and marched towards Lahore at the head of a large army. Mingburnu retreated from Lahore and moved towards Uchch inflicting a heavy defeat on its ruler Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, and plundered Sindh and northern Gujarat before returning to Persia in 1224. <ref name="Chandra40">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}.</ref>

He gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power however, and he spent the rest of his days struggling against the Mongols, pretenders to the throne and the Seljuk Turks of Rum. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz mountains and fled to the Caucasus, to capture Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up their capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi, destroying all the churches and massacring the city's Christian population.<ref>Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 260</ref>

Jalal ad-Din had a brief victory over the Seljuks and captured the town Akhlat from Ayyubids. However, he was later defeated by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen (Yassi Chemen) in 1230, from where he escaped to Diyarbakir while the Mongols captured Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 in Diyarbakir by a Kurdish assassin hired by the Seljuks or possibly by Kurdish highwaymen.<ref>[1], PHI, Persian Literature in Translation</ref><ref>[2], Encyclopedia Iranica</ref>


Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu sections
Intro  Notes  References  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Notes
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