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United Mexican States
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Himno Nacional Mexicano
()

Capital
and largest city
Mexico City
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Official languages None at federal level
Recognised regional languages {{safesubst:#invoke:list|horizontal}}
National language Spanish[b]
Demonym Mexican
Government Federal presidential
constitutional republic<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref>
 -  President Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI) PRI logo (Mexico).svg
 -  President of the Senate Miguel Barbosa Huerta (PRD) PRD logo without border (Mexico).svg
 -  President of the Chamber of Deputies Silvano Aureoles Conejo (PRD) PRD logo without border (Mexico).svg
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain
 -  Declared September 16, 1810<ref name="Castro2000">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=book

}}</ref> 
 -  Consummated September 27, 1821 
 -  Recognized December 28, 1836 
 -  First constitution October 4, 1824 
 -  Second constitution February 5, 1857 
 -  Current constitution February 5, 1917 
Area
 -  Total 1,972,550 km2 (14th)
761,606 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2.5
Population
 -  2015 estimate 121,736,809<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref> (11th)
 -  Density 57/km2 (142nd)
142/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total {{{1}}} (11th)
 -  Per capita $18,370<ref name="imf-mx"/> (66th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total {{{1}}} (13th)
 -  Per capita $10,174<ref name="imf-mx"/> (65th)
Gini (2010)47.2<ref name="wb-gini">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
high
HDI (2013)Decrease 0.756<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
high · 71st
Currency Peso (MXN)
Time zone See Time in Mexico (UTC−8 to −5)
 -  Summer (DST) varies (UTC−7 to −5)
Drives on the right
Calling code +52
ISO 3166 code MX
Internet TLD .mx
a. Article 4.° of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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b. ^ Spanish is the de facto official language of the Mexican federal government.

Mexico ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Spanish: México{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [ˈmexiko]), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, About this sound listen ),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="presidencia.gob.mx">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="cia.gov"/> is a federal republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.<ref>Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, Merriam-Webster; p. 733</ref> Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi),<ref name="cia.gov">Mexico entry at The World Factbook</ref> Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million,<ref name="INEGI 2010 Census Statistics">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> it is the eleventh most populous and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, its capital and largest city.

Pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico following recognition of the colony's independence in 1821. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by economic instability, the Mexican-American War that led to the territorial cession to the United States, the Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system.

Mexico has one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with an abundance of natural resources such as oil and silver. It has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest GDP by purchasing power parity. The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD (since 1994), and is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank<ref name="wb-upper-middle">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.<ref name=Globalization>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=Limits>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=AIA>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=Principles>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> By 2050, Mexico could become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The country is subsequently considered both a regional power and middle power,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and is often identified as an emerging global power.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref> Owing to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and sixth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>Table of World Heritage Sites by country</ref> and in 2010 was the tenth most visited country in the world, with 22.5 million international arrivals annually.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Mexico is a member of the UN, the WTO, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and is an observer of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie since 2014.

Etymology

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Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely,<ref name="Bright2004">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica, and surrounding territories which became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence (compare Latium). It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, or vice versa. After New Spain won independence from Spain, it was decided that the new country would be named after its capital, Mexico City, which was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Traditionally, its name was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl [ˈtetɬ] ("rock") and nōchtli [ˈnoːtʃtɬi] ("prickly pear") and is often thought to mean "Among the prickly pears [growing among] rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.<ref>Frances Karttunen (1983) An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl p.225, Texas linguistic series, University of Texas, Austin ISBN 978-0-2927-0365-0; OCLC 230535203</ref>

The suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexicas, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Another hypothesis<ref name=edomex/> suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "Moon" (Mētztli) and navel (xīctli). This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might then refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that it is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey.<ref name="edomex">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter 'x' in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ]. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative [ʒ], represented by a 'j', evolved into a voiceless velar fricative [x] during the 16th century. This led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries México was the preferred spelling. In recent years the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish language, determined that both variants are acceptable in Spanish but that the normative recommended spelling is México.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The majority of publications in all Spanish-speaking countries now adhere to the new norm, even though the alternative variant is still occasionally used.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} In English, the 'x' in Mexico represents neither the original nor the current sound, but the consonant cluster [ks].

The official name of the country has changed as the form of government has changed. On three occasions (1325–1521, 1821–1823, and 1863–1867). The country was known as Imperio Mexicano{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (Mexican Empire). All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name Estados Unidos Mexicanos{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>—or the variant Estados-Unidos Mexicanos{{#invoke:Category handler|main}},<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States". The phrase República Mexicana{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> On November 22, 2012, president Felipe Calderón sent to the Mexican Congress a piece of legislation to change the country's name officially to simply Mexico. To go into effect, the bill would need to be passed by both houses of Congress, as well as a majority of Mexico's 31 State legislatures. As this legislation was proposed just a week before Calderón turned power over to Enrique Peña Nieto, Calderón's critics saw this as a symbolic gesture.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


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