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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} mamlūk (singular), مماليك{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} mamālīk (plural), meaning "property" or "owned slave" of the king, also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

A Mamluk nobleman from Aleppo
An Egyptian Mamluk warrior in full armor and armed with lance, shield, sabre and pistols

More specifically, it refers to:

The most enduring Mamluk realm was the military caste in medieval Egypt that rose from the ranks of slave soldiers who were mainly of Kipchak, Turkic,<ref name="Isichei 1997 192">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Circassian,<ref name=GPG>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Abkhazian,<ref>А.Ш.Кадырбаев, Сайф-ад-Дин Хайр-Бек - абхазский "король эмиров" Мамлюкского Египта (1517-1522), "Материалы первой международной научной конференции, посвященной 65-летию В.Г.Ардзинба". Сухум: АбИГИ, 2011, pp. 87-95</ref><ref>Thomas Philipp,Ulrich Haarmann (eds), The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 115-116.</ref><ref>Jane Hathaway, The Politics of Households in Ottoman Egypt: The Rise of the Qazdaglis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 103-104.</ref> Georgian,<ref name=autogenerated1>Relations of the Georgian Mamluks of Egypt with Their Homeland in the Last Decades of the Eighteenth Century. Daniel Crecelius and Gotcha Djaparidze. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 45, No. 3 (2002), pp. 320—341. ISSN 0022-4995.</ref><ref name="bbs"> By Reidar Visser</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> and Coptic Egyptian.<ref name="ReferenceA">Thomas Philipp & Ulrich Haarmann. The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society.</ref> Many Mamluks could also be of Balkan origin (Albanian, Greek, and South Slavic).<ref name="István Vásáry 2005">István Vásáry (2005) Cuman and Tatars, Cambridge University Press.</ref><ref name="T. Pavlidis 2011">T. Pavlidis, A Concise History of the Middle East, Chapter 11: Turks and Byzantine Decline, 2011</ref> The "mamluk phenomenon", as David Ayalon dubbed the creation of the specific warrior class,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> was of great political importance and was extraordinarily long-lived, lasting from the 9th to the 19th centuries AD.

Over time, mamluks became a powerful military caste in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. Particularly in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Mesopotamia, and India, mamluks held political and military power. In some cases, they attained the rank of sultan, while in others they held regional power as amirs or beys. Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate for themselves in Egypt and Syria in a period known as the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). The Mamluk Sultanate famously beat back the troops of the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut and fought the Crusaders, effectively driving them out from the Levant and Egypt in 1213-1221 and 1154-1169 then officially in 1302 from the Levant ending the era of the Crusades.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

While mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, who were not allowed to carry weapons or perform certain tasks. In places such as Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty to the time of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, mamluks were considered to be “true lords" and "true warriors" with social status above the general population in Egypt and the Levant.<ref name="ReferenceA"/><ref name="Behrens-Abouseif, Doris 2008">Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and Its Culture. New York: Macmillan, 2008.</ref>


Mamluk sections
Intro   Overview   Organization   Relations with other backgrounds   Egypt  Other Mamluk regimes   Mamluk rulers   Office titles and terminology  Gallery  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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