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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} Malignancy (from la male, meaning "badly", and -gnus, meaning "born") is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Malignancy is most familiar as a characterization of cancer. A malignant tumor contrasts with a non-cancerous benign tumor in that a malignancy is not self-limited in its growth, is capable of invading into adjacent tissues, and may be capable of spreading to distant tissues. A benign tumor has none of those properties.

Malignancy in cancers is characterized by anaplasia, invasiveness, and metastasis.<ref name="Wilkins">Wilkins, E. M. 2009. clinical practice of the dental hygienist tenth edition. lippincott williams and wilkins, a walters kluwer business. Philadelphia, PA.</ref> Malignant tumors are also characterized by genome instability, so that cancers, as assessed by whole genome sequencing, frequently have between 10,000 and 100,000 mutations in their entire genomes.<ref name="pmid23178448">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Cancers usually show tumour heterogeneity, containing multiple subclones.<ref name="pmid23002210">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="pmid24558642">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> They also frequently have reduced expression of DNA repair enzymes due to epigenetic methylation of DNA repair genes or altered microRNAs that control DNA repair gene expression.

Uses of "malignant" in oncology:

Non-oncologic disorders referred to as "malignant":


Malignancy sections
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Journal::cancer    Repair::tumor    Volume::cancer    Benign::title    Issue::pages    Author::cancers

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} Malignancy (from la male, meaning "badly", and -gnus, meaning "born") is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Malignancy is most familiar as a characterization of cancer. A malignant tumor contrasts with a non-cancerous benign tumor in that a malignancy is not self-limited in its growth, is capable of invading into adjacent tissues, and may be capable of spreading to distant tissues. A benign tumor has none of those properties.

Malignancy in cancers is characterized by anaplasia, invasiveness, and metastasis.<ref name="Wilkins">Wilkins, E. M. 2009. clinical practice of the dental hygienist tenth edition. lippincott williams and wilkins, a walters kluwer business. Philadelphia, PA.</ref> Malignant tumors are also characterized by genome instability, so that cancers, as assessed by whole genome sequencing, frequently have between 10,000 and 100,000 mutations in their entire genomes.<ref name="pmid23178448">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Cancers usually show tumour heterogeneity, containing multiple subclones.<ref name="pmid23002210">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name="pmid24558642">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> They also frequently have reduced expression of DNA repair enzymes due to epigenetic methylation of DNA repair genes or altered microRNAs that control DNA repair gene expression.

Uses of "malignant" in oncology:

Non-oncologic disorders referred to as "malignant":


Malignancy sections
Intro  See also  References  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: See also
<<>>