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Mecca<ref>Rarely, Bakkah (Arabic: بكة‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}).</ref> ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Arabic: مكة‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), also transliterated Makkah (pronounced [ˈmæk.kæ]), is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> It is the capital of that kingdom's Makkah Region. The city is located {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the hajj ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah.

As the birthplace of Muhammad and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} from Mecca),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam<ref>Nasr, Seyyed (2005). Mecca, The Blessed, Medina, The Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam. Aperture ISBN 089381752X</ref> and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's third tallest building and the building with the largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress.<ref name="independent">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj.<ref>A Saudi tower: Mecca versus Las Vegas: Taller, holier and even more popular than (almost) anywhere else, The Economist (2010-06-24), Cairo.</ref> As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan and diverse cities in the Muslim world,<ref name= NYT>Fattah, Hassan M.Islamic Pilgrims Bring Cosmopolitan Air to Unlikely City, The New York Times (2005-01-20).</ref> despite the fact that non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.<ref name="peters 206"/><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Mecca sections
Intro  Etymology and usage  Government  History  Pilgrimage  Geography  Climate  Landmarks  Economy  Health care  Culture  Education  Paleontology  Communications  Transportation  Sister cities  See also  References  Bibliography  Further reading  External links  

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Mecca::saudi    Title::arabia    Books::muhammad    Islamic::which    Pilgrims::islam    Record::https

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Mecca<ref>Rarely, Bakkah (Arabic: بكة‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}).</ref> ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Arabic: مكة‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), also transliterated Makkah (pronounced [ˈmæk.kæ]), is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> It is the capital of that kingdom's Makkah Region. The city is located {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the hajj ("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah.

As the birthplace of Muhammad and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} from Mecca),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam<ref>Nasr, Seyyed (2005). Mecca, The Blessed, Medina, The Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam. Aperture ISBN 089381752X</ref> and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's third tallest building and the building with the largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress.<ref name="independent">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj.<ref>A Saudi tower: Mecca versus Las Vegas: Taller, holier and even more popular than (almost) anywhere else, The Economist (2010-06-24), Cairo.</ref> As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan and diverse cities in the Muslim world,<ref name= NYT>Fattah, Hassan M.Islamic Pilgrims Bring Cosmopolitan Air to Unlikely City, The New York Times (2005-01-20).</ref> despite the fact that non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.<ref name="peters 206"/><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Mecca sections
Intro  Etymology and usage  Government  History  Pilgrimage  Geography  Climate  Landmarks  Economy  Health care  Culture  Education  Paleontology  Communications  Transportation  Sister cities  See also  References  Bibliography  Further reading  External links  

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