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Caballerismo::Machismo

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Caballerismo "Caballerismo{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}" or "caballerosidad{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}" in Spanish, cavalheirismo{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} in Portuguese is a Latin American understanding of manliness that focuses more on honour and chivalry.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The literal translation is knightliness (see below) but the figurative translation is gentleman. Latin American scholars have noted that positive descriptors of machismo resemble the characteristics associated with the concept of caballerismo.<ref name="Opazo108"/> Understandings of machismo in Latin American cultures are not all negative; they also involve the characteristics of honour, responsibility, perseverance and courage, related to both individual and group interaction.<ref name="Opazo108"/><ref>Torres, J. B (1998). Masculinity and Gender Roles Among Puerto Rican Men; Machismo on the U.S Mainland. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 68 (1). 16–26. http://search.proquest.com.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/docview/1038623435?accountid=12347</ref> Studies show Latin American men understand masculinity to involve considerable childcare responsibilities, politeness, respect for women's autonomy, and non-violent attitudes and behaviors.<ref>Gutmann, Matthew (1996). The Meanings of Macho: Being a Man in Mexico City. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.</ref> In this way, machismo comes to mean both positive and negative understanding of Latin American male identity within the immigrant context. Therefore, machismo, like all social constructions of identity, should be understood as having multiple layers.<ref name="Opazo108"/><ref name="counsellingpsychology">Arciniega, M. G, Anderson, T. C, Tovar-Blank, Z. Tracey, T. (2008). Toward a Fuller Conception of Machismo: Development of Machismo and Callerismo Scale. Journal of Counselling Psychology. 55(1). 19–33. http://journals1.scholarsportal.info.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/tmp/17124529716537355464.pdf</ref>

The word caballerismo{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} originates from Spanish word for horse and horseman – caballo{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} and caballero{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}. Caballerismo{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} refers to a chivalric masculine code of behavior. (Note that the English term that also stems from the original Latin root caballus.) Like the English chivalric code, caballerismo{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} developed out of a medieval sociohistorical class system in which people of wealth and status owned horses for transportation and other forms of horsepower whereas the unwealthy did not. Thus, caballero{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} referred to a land-owning colonial Spanish gentleman of high station who was master of estates and/or ranches.<ref name="Opazo108"/>


Machismo sections
Intro  Contemporary dominant view on the meaning of the term  Caballerismo  Criticism and controversy  Influences  Indigenous influence on Mexican culture  Implications  See also  References  

Caballerismo
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