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{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Original research |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Message box|ambox}} }} Machismo ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Spanish: [maˈtʃizmo] (from Spanish "macho", male<ref>Machismo. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 23 December 2013.</ref>); Portuguese: [mɐˈʃiʒmu]) is the sense of being manly, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride...[with] the supreme valuation of characteristics culturally associated with the masculine and a denigration of characteristics associated with the feminine."<ref>Machismo. The Merriam-Webster's Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 December 2013.</ref> It is associated with "a man’s responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family."<ref>Morales, Edward. S. Gender roles among Latino gay and bisexual men: Implications for family and couple relationships. In, J. Laird & R. J. Green (Eds.), Lesbians and gays in couples and families: A handbook for therapists. pp. 272-297. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1996. Retrieved 23 December 2013.</ref> In American political usage, William Safire says it refers to the "condescension of the swaggering male; the trappings of manliness used to dominate women and keep them 'in their place.'"<ref>William Safire, Safire's new political dictionary: The definitive guide to the new language of politics (Random House, 1993) p 427</ref>

The word macho{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} or varón{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, c.f. Portuguese homem{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} and now-obsolete for humans varão{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; macho and varão{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, "to be a macho") was an aspiration for all boys.

During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 70s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.<ref name="Opazo108">Opazo, R. M (2008). Latino Youth and Machismo: Working Towards a More Complex Understanding of Marginalized Masculinities. Retrieved From Ryerson University Digital Commons Thesis Dissertation Paper 108. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/dissertations/108</ref><ref>Ramirez, R, translated by Rosa Casper (1999). What Means to be a Man: Reflections on Puerto Rican Masculinity. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, NJ.</ref>

The English word "machismo" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Portuguese and Spanish machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity, a concept similar to R. W Connell's hegemonic masculinity,<ref name="Connell">Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Los Angeles, California, United States: University of California Press</ref> Presently in the sense that supposed feminine traits among males (or traits historically viewed as non-feminine among females, see marianismo) are to be deemed undesirable, socially reprovable or deviations. Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions.<ref>Brown, Leslie Allison, and Susan Strega. Research as resistance: Critical, Indigenous and anti-oppressive approaches. Canadian Scholars Press, 2005.</ref> Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in various societies or subcultures – albeit it is frequently associated with more patriarchial undertones, primarily in present views on the past.<ref name="Opazo108"/>


Machismo sections
Intro  Contemporary dominant view on the meaning of the term  Caballerismo  Criticism and controversy  Influences  Indigenous influence on Mexican culture  Implications  See also  References  

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