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William Blake's illustration of Lucifer as presented in John Milton's Paradise Lost

Lucifer ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} LEW-sif-ər) is the King James Version rendering of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} in Isaiah 14:12. This word, transliterated hêlêl<ref name="biblesuite">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> or heylel,<ref name="H1966">Strong's Concordance, H1966: "shining one, morning star, Lucifer; of the king of Babylon and Satan (fig.)"</ref> occurs only once in the Hebrew Bible<ref name="biblesuite"/> and according to the KJV based Strong's Concordance means "shining one, light bearer".<ref name="H1966"/> The word Lucifer is taken from the Latin Vulgate,<ref name=Kohler1923>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> which translates הֵילֵל as lucifer,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Vulgate Latin: Isaiah Chapter 14">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> meaning "the morning star, the planet Venus", or, as an adjective, "light-bringing".<ref name=Lewis&S>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The Septuagint renders הֵילֵל in Greek as ἑωσφόρος<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> (heōsphoros),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Adelman">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> a name, literally "bringer of dawn", for the morning star.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Later Christian tradition came to use the Latin word for "morning star", lucifer, as a proper name ("Lucifer") for the devil; as he was before his fall.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> As a result, "'Lucifer' has become a by-word for Satan/the Devil in the church and in popular literature",<ref name=Kohler1923/> as in Dante Alighieri's Inferno and John Milton's Paradise Lost.<ref name="Adelman"/> However, the Latin word never came to be used almost exclusively, as in English, in this way, and was applied to others also, including Jesus.<ref>See Latin word lucifer below.</ref> The image of a morning star fallen from the sky is generally believed among scholars to have a parallel in Canaanite mythology.<ref>See #Mythology behind Isaiah 14:12</ref>

However, according to both Christian<ref>Examples of Christian literal exegesis of Isaiah 14:12</ref> and Jewish exegesis, in the Book of Isaiah, chapter 14, the King of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar II, conqueror of Jerusalem, is condemned in a prophetic vision by the prophet Isaiah and is called the "Morning Ha" (planet Venus).<ref>Helel ben Shaḥar "day-star, son of the morning"; planet Venus is one of the brightest celestial bodies at night, which can be seen in the early morning when no other star can be seen any more, but vanishes when the sun, the real light, rises.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In this chapter the Hebrew text says הֵילֵל בֶּן-שָׁחַר (Helel ben Shaḥar, "shining one, son of the morning"){{#invoke:Category handler|main}}.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> "Helel ben Shaḥar" may refer to the Morning Star, but the text in Isaiah 14 gives no indication that Helel was a star or planet.<ref>Gunkel, "Schöpfung und Chaos," pp. 132 et seq.</ref><ref name=MM-Isa14>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Lucifer sections
Intro  Etymology, Lucifer or morning star  Isaiah 14:12  Latin word lucifer  Literal meaning  Intertestamental Period  Allegorical interpretation in Christianity  Islam  Occultism  Taxil's hoax  Gallery  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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