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Lorraine::louis    Francia::middle    Charles::lothair    Between::title    Kingdom::division    Frankish::latin

="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
Lotharingia's division in 959
Blue: Alsace, ceded to Swabia in 925
Orange: Upper Lorraine after 928
Green: Lower Lorraine after 977


="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Not specified


="2" Languages Old Dutch, Old High German, Old Low German, Old French, Middle Latin

="2" Religion Christianity

="2" King/Duke || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 866-869 Lothair II - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"953-965 Bruno the Great - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="2" Today part of



Lotharingia

855–959
 

Government Monarchy
Historical era Medieval
 •  Treaty of Prüm 855
 •  Division 959
Threefold division of the Frankish empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, showing West Francia (pink), Middle Francia (green), and East Francia (yellow).

Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the Low Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border between France and Germany, and what is now western Switzerland.<ref>The present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).</ref> It was named after King Lothair II.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

It was born of the tripartite division in 855, of the kingdom of Middle Francia, itself formed of the threefold division of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Neither Lotharingia nor Middle Francia had any natural coherence, but each was conceived as a territorial division of a larger realm. In 870 Lotharingia, after a brief interregnum, was divided by the Treaty of Meerssen between its neighbours, East Francia and West Francia. After brief wars in 876 and 879 West Francia ceded its half of Lotharingia to East Francia by the Treaty of Ribemont (880). The Lotharingian aristocracy, in attempting to assert its right to elect a sovereign, joined the other East Frankish lands in deposing their king, Charles the Fat, in 887. Under a series of dukes that began under the child king Louis IV in 903, the Lotharingians frequently swapped allegiance between the East and West Frankish kings. In 939 the East Frankish king Otto I brought the reigning duke Gilbert to heel and incorporated Lotharingia into his realm as one of the "younger" stem duchies, whose dukes had a vote in royal elections. While the other stem duchies were tribal or national identities, Lotharingia's identity was solely political.

In 959 the Lotharingian duke Bruno the Great divided the duchy between Lotharingia superior (Upper Lorraine) and Lotharingia inferior (Lower Lorraine), giving each to the rule of a margrave. Except for one brief period (1033–44, under Gothelo I), the division was never reversed and the margraves had soon raised their separate fiefs into dukedoms. In the twelfth century the ducal authority in Lower Lorraine became fragmented, causing the formation of the Duchy of Limburg and the Duchy of Brabant, whose rulers retained the title Duke of Lothier (derived from "Lotharingia"). With the disappearance of a "lower" Lorraine, the duchy of Upper Lorraine became the primary referent for "Lorraine" within the Holy Roman Empire. After centuries of French invasions and occupations, Lorraine was finally ceded to France at the close of the War of the Polish Succession (1737). In 1766 the duchy was inherited by the French crown and became the province of Lorraine. In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the German-speaking part of Lorraine was merged with Alsace to become the province of Alsace-Lorraine in the German Empire. Today the greater part of the French side of the Franco-German border belongs to the Lorraine région.


Lotharingia sections
Intro  Middle Francia  Kingdom of Lotharingia  Duchy of Lotharingia  See also  Notes  Bibliography  

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