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Logos{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}, {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}, or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Greek: λόγος{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, from λέγω lego "I say") is an important term in western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion. Originally a word meaning "a ground", "a plea", "an opinion", "an expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "to reason"<ref name="LSJlogos">Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: logos, 1889.</ref><ref>Entry λόγος{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} at LSJ online.</ref> it became a technical term in philosophy, beginning with Heraclitus (ca. 535–475 BC), who used the term for a principle of order and knowledge.<ref>Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed): Heraclitus, 1999.</ref>

Ancient Greek philosophers used the term in different ways. The sophists used the term to mean discourse, and Aristotle applied the term to refer to "reasoned discourse"<ref name="PaulRahe"/> or "the argument" in the field of rhetoric.<ref>Rapp, Christof, "Aristotle's Rhetoric", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)</ref> The Stoic philosophers identified the term with the divine animating principle pervading the Universe. Under Hellenistic Judaism, Philo (c. 20 BC – AD 50) adopted the term into Jewish philosophy.<ref name="cdpPhilo">Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed): Philo Judaeus, 1999.</ref> The Gospel of John identifies the Logos, through which all things are made, as divine (theos),<ref name = "May Metzger">May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.</ref> and further identifies Jesus Christ as the incarnate Logos. Although the term "Logos" is widely used in this Christian sense, in academic circles it often refers to the various ancient Greek uses, or to post-Christian uses within contemporary philosophy, Sufism, and the analytical psychology of Carl Jung.

Despite the conventional translation as "word", it is not used for a word in the grammatical sense; instead, the term lexis (λέξις) was used.<ref name="LSJlexis">Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: lexis, 1889.</ref> However, both logos and lexis derive from the same verb legō (λέγω), meaning "to count, tell, say, speak".<ref name="LSJlogos"/><ref name="LSJlexis"/><ref name="LSJlego">Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: legō, 1889.</ref>

Professor Jeanne Fahnestock describes logos as a "premise."<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> She states that to find the reason behind a rhetor's backing of a certain position or stance you must acknowledge the different "premises" the rhetor applies via his/her chosen diction.<ref name="members.tripod.com">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> She continues by stating that the rhetor's success will come down to "certain objects of agreement...between arguer and audience."<ref name="members.tripod.com"/> "Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic."<ref name="mountainman.com.au">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Furthermore, logos is credited with appealing to the audience's sense of logic. With the definition of “logic” being the following: as being concerned with the thing as-it-is-known.<ref name="mountainman.com.au"/> Furthermore, you can appeal to this sense of logic via two ways. One, through inductive logic and provide the audience with relevant examples and use them to point back to the overall statement.<ref name="Ethos, Pathos, and Logos">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Or two, through deductive enthymeme and provide the audience with general scenarios and then pull out a certain truth.<ref name="Ethos, Pathos, and Logos"/>

Philo distinguished between logos prophorikos ("the uttered word") and the logos endiathetos ("the word remaining within").<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The Stoics also spoke of the logos spermatikos (the generative principle of the Universe), which is not important in the Biblical tradition, but is relevant in Neoplatonism.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Early translators from Greek, like Jerome in the 4th century, were frustrated by the inadequacy of any single Latin word to convey the Logos expressed in the Gospel of John. The Vulgate Bible usage of in principio erat verbum was thus constrained to use the perhaps inadequate noun verbum for word, but later romance language translations had the advantage of nouns such as le mot in French. Reformation translators took another approach. Martin Luther rejected Zeitwort (verb) in favor of Wort (word), for instance, although later commentators repeatedly turned to a more dynamic use involving the living word as felt by Jerome and Augustine.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Logos sections
Intro  Ancient Greek philosophy  Logos in Hellenistic Judaism  Christianity  Rhema and logos  Neoplatonism  Sufism  Jung's analytical psychology  See also  References  External links  

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