Depth psychology::Liminality


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Depth psychology Jungians have often seen the individuation process of self-realisation as taking place within a liminal space. 'Individuation begins with a withdrawal from normal modes of socialisation, epitomized by the breakdown of the persona...liminality'.<ref>Homans 1979, 207.</ref> Thus "what Turner's concept of social liminality does for status in society, Jung...does for the movement of the person through the life process of individuation".<ref>Hall, quoted in Miller and Jung 2004, 104.</ref> Individuation can be seen as a "movement through liminal space and time, from disorientation to integration....What takes place in the dark phase of liminality is a process of breaking the interest of "making whole" one's meaning, purpose and sense of relatedness once more'"<ref>Shorter 1988, 73 and 79.</ref> As an archetypal figure, "the trickster is a symbol of the liminal state itself, and of its permanent accessibility as a source of recreative power".<ref>Robert Pelton in Young-Eisendrath and Dawson eds. 1997, 244</ref>

But other depth psychologies speak of a similar process. Carl Rogers describes "the 'out-of-this-world' quality that many therapists have remarked upon, a sort of trance-like feeling in the relationship that client and therapist emerge from at the end of the hour, as if from a deep well or tunnel.<ref>Rogers 1961, 202.</ref> The French talk of how the anaytic setting 'opens/forges the "intermediate space," "excluded middle," or "between" that figures so importantly in Irigaray's writing".<ref>E. Hirsh, in Burke et al eds 1994, 309n</ref> Marion Milner claimed that "a temporal spatial frame also marks off the special kind of reality of a psycho-analytic session...the different kind of reality that is within it".<ref>Quoted in Casement 1997, 158.</ref>

Jungians however have perhaps been most explicit about the 'need to accord space, time and place for liminal feeling'<ref>Shorter 1988, 79.</ref> - as well about the associated dangers, 'two mistakes: we provide no ritual space at all in our lives...or we stay in it too long'.<ref>Bly, 1991, 194.</ref> Indeed, Jung's psychology has itself been described as 'a form of "permanent liminality" in which there is no need to return to social structure'.<ref>Homans 1979, 208.</ref>

Liminality sections
Intro  Rites of passage  Communitas  Types  Liminal experiences in large-scale societies  Depth psychology  Examples of general usage  Liminoid  See also  Notes  Bibliography  

Depth psychology
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