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Communitas During the liminal stage, normally accepted differences between the participants, such as social class, are often de-emphasized or ignored. A social structure of communitas forms: one based on common humanity and equality rather than recognized hierarchy. '"Communitas"...has positive values associated with it; good fellowship, spontaneity, warm contact...unhierarchised, undifferentiated social relations'.<ref>Mary Douglas, Implicit Meanings (London 1984) p. 104</ref> For example, during a pilgrimage, members of an upper class and members of a lower class might mix and converse as equals, when in normal life they would rarely converse at all or their conversation might be limited to giving or receiving orders.<ref>Turner, Victor and Edith. Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives. Oxford: Columbia University Press, 1978.</ref> 'Such collapsing of classes and occupations in the new community...a full-scale "Communitas" of equal beings'<ref>A. K. Ramanujan, Speaking of Siva (Middlesex 1979) p. 35</ref> may be of longer or shorter duration. According to Turner, this sense of Communitas is created as the pilgrims “distance themselves from mundane structures and their social identities, leading to a homogenization of status”.<ref>Thomassen 2009, 15</ref>

'Following Victor Turner in The Ritual Process', one may see such communitas as the product of 'anti-structure...Anti-structure is anti- "structure", ideological rejection of the idea of structure itself.<ref>Ramanujan, Siva p. 34-5</ref> However anthropologists are currently in debate over whether the liminal stage of rituals has an absence of structure (anti-structure) or "hyper-structure", or whether both are possible{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}.

In general, 'the undifferentiated presents itself as preliminary to (re-)differentiation'; in the meantime, however, the darker side of liminality may produce alongside communitas 'undifferentiated monsters'<ref>Rene Girard, "To double business bound" (Baltimore 1988) p. 156 and p. 168</ref> -'the unsavoury agonistic side of the community..."the dark mirror of what humanity is"'<ref>Jason Scott quote, Andrew Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution (London 2009) p. 130-1</ref> - as 'the dissolution of differences encourages the proliferation of the double bind'.<ref>Rene Girard, Violence and the Sacred (London 1992) p. 188</ref>


Liminality sections
Intro  Rites of passage  Communitas  Types  Liminal experiences in large-scale societies  Depth psychology  Examples of general usage  Liminoid  See also  Notes  Bibliography  

Communitas
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