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Republic of Liberia
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: "The love of liberty brought us here"
Anthem: All Hail, Liberia, Hail!
File:Liberia National Anthem.ogg
Location of  Liberia{{#invoke:String
Location of  Liberia{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark blue)

– in Africa{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Monrovia
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:6|19|N|10|48|W|type:city||

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Official languages English 15%
Spoken and national languages<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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{{safesubst:#invoke:list|horizontal}}
Ethnic groups (2008<ref name=CIA/>) {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Religion Christianity
Demonym Liberian
Government Unitary presidential republic
 -  President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
 -  Vice President Joseph Boakai
 -  Speaker of the House Alex J. Tyler
 -  Chief Justice Francis Korkpor, Sr.
Legislature Legislature of Liberia
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
Formation and Independence
 -  Settled by the American Colonization Society January 7, 1822 – Date of first settlement 
 -  Independence from American Colonization Society July 26, 1847 
 -  Annexation of Republic of Maryland March 18, 1857 
 -  Recognized by the United States of America February 5, 1862 
 -  Current constitution January 6, 1986 
Area
 -  Total 111,369 km2 (103rd)
43,000 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 13.514
Population
 -  2015 estimate 4,503,000<ref name=WorldBank>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref> (125th)
 -  2008 census 3,476,608 (130th)
 -  Density 35.5/km2 (180th)
92.0/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $6.753 billion<ref name=IMF_GDP>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Per capita $2,000<ref name=IMF_GDP/>
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $2.028 billion<ref name=IMF_GDP/>
 -  Per capita $484<ref name=IMF_GDP/>
Gini (2007)38.2<ref name=gini-index>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
medium
HDI (2013)Steady 0.412<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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low · 175th
Currency Liberian dollara (LRD)
Time zone GMT
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the right
Calling code +231
ISO 3166 code LR
Internet TLD .lr

Liberia {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}, Cape Mesurado, Grain Coast, Pepper Coast, (Little America) or (LIB), commonly and officially referred to as the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. Liberia means "Land of the Free." It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its west, Guinea to its north and Ivory Coast to its east. It covers an area of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} and is home to 4,503,000 people.<ref name="WorldBank"/> English is the official language but only 15% of Liberians speak English{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken. Forests on the coastline are composed mostly of salt-tolerant mangrove trees while the more sparsely populated inland has forests opening onto a plateau of drier grasslands. The climate is equatorial, with significant rainfall during the May–October rainy season and harsh harmattan winds the remainder of the year. Liberia possesses about forty percent of the remaining Upper Guinean rainforest.

The Republic of Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society (ACS) declared its independence on July 26, 1847. The United States finally accepted and recognized Liberia's Independence on February 5, 1862. Liberia was the first African nation to gain its independence, although it was not the only independent state in Africa at the time. Liberia was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-American and ex-Caribbean slaves who came from the Caribbean islands and the United States with the help and support from the American Colonization Society. Liberia is Africa's oldest democratic republic and the second oldest black republic in the world after Haiti.

Liberia is unique among African countries because it was the only African nation that was colonized and controlled by freed African-American and ex-Caribbean slaves as a free state and a homeland to live. Liberia and Ethiopia were the only two African countries during the 19th century conquest of Africa that were not controlled or colonized by European powers. Liberia—which means "Land of the Free"—originated from the freed African-American and ex-Caribbean slaves who established Liberia as a free state. During the colonial era, Liberia was presumed a protectorate of the United States.

The Liberian constitution and flag was modeled after the Constitution of the United States and the American flag. The Liberian capital city of Monrovia was named after James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States and a prominent supporter of the American Colonization Society. Monrovia is one of two capital cities in the world that were named after a former American president, the other being Washington, DC named after George Washington the first president of the United States. In January 3, 1848 Joseph Jenkins Roberts, an African-American, was elected and became Liberia's first Black American president.<ref name=TDIH>"July 26, 1847 Liberian independence proclaimed". This Day In History.</ref>

The American Colonization Society was founded in December 21, 1816 by American Robert Finley to return freed African-Americans to Africa. In 1820, the first former American slaves arrived at the British colony of Sierra Leone from the United States and in 1821 the American Colonization Society founded the colony of Liberia as a homeland for freed African-American and ex-Caribbean slaves to live .<ref name=TDIH>"July 26,1847 Liberian independence proclaimed". This Day In History</ref>

The American Colonization Society came under attack from American abolitionists, who charged that the removal of freed slaves from the United States strengthened the institution of slavery. In addition, most Americans of African descent living in the United States were not enthusiastic to abandon their native lands in the United States for the harsh West African coast. Nevertheless, between January 7, 1822 and the American Civil War, over 15,000 African-American and 3,198 ex-Caribbean slaves from the United States and Caribbean islands settled in Liberia. Independence was granted by the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847 and on February 5, 1862 the United States accepted and recognized Liberia's Independence.<ref name=TDIH>"July 26,1847 Liberian independence proclaimed". This Day In History</ref>

Liberia aided Britain in its efforts to end the illegal West African slave trade. Liberia was the only African nation on the African continent that was a colony and protectorate for the United States. Liberia was founded, colonized, established and controlled by the American Colonization Society. The American Colonization Society was a private organization which sent freed African-American and ex-Caribbean slaves as settlers from the United States and the Caribbean islands to Liberia to live a better life, based on self governance, equal opportunity and freedom.

Liberia was presumed a protectorate of the United States from January 7, 1822 until the Liberian Declaration of Independence on July 26, 1847. With the backing and support from the United States, Liberia kept its independence during the colonial era and Liberia was never colonized or controlled by European powers making Liberia the oldest republic nation on the African continent.<ref name=TDIH>"July 26,1847 Liberian independence proclaimed".this Day In History</ref>

Liberia began to modernize in the 1940s following investment by the United States during World War II and economic liberalization under President William Tubman. Liberia was a founding member of League of Nations, United Nations and the Organisation of African Unity. In 1980 a military coup overthrew the True-Whig Party leadership, marking the beginning of political instability. Five years of military rule by the People Redemption Council and five years of civilian rule by the National Democratic Party of Liberia were followed by two civil wars – the First and Second Liberian Civil Wars. These resulted in the deaths of between 250,000 and 520,000 people and devastated Liberia's economy. A peace agreement in 2003 led to democratic elections in 2005. Today, about 85% of the population live below the international poverty line.

Liberia's economic and political stability was threatened by a deadly Ebola virus epidemic which originated in Guinea in December 2013 and entered Liberia in March 2014, but the outbreak officially ended on May 8, 2015, after 42 days with no new cases.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>


Liberia sections
Intro  History  Geography  Politics  Economy and infrastructure  Demographics  Culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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