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Lebanese Republic
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Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Capital
and largest city
Beirut
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Official languages Arabic
Demonym Lebanese
Government
 -  Acting President Tammam Salam
 -  Prime Minister Tammam Salam
 -  Speaker of the Parliament Nabih Berri
Legislature Parliament
Establishment
 -  Greater Lebanon 1 September 1920 
 -  Constitution 23 May 1926 
 -  Independence declared 22 November 1943 
 -  Independence (Joined UN / French Mandate ended) 24 October 1945 
 -  Withdrawal of French forces 31 December 1946 
Area
 -  Total 10,452 km2 (166th)
4,036 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.8
Population
 -  2015 estimate 5,851,000<ref name="un">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref> (112th)
 -  Density 560/km2 (21st)
1,450/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $81.122 billion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref> (88th)
 -  Per capita $17,986<ref name="un"/><ref name=imf2/> (80th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $49.919 billion<ref name=imf2/> (86th)
 -  Per capita $11,068<ref name="un"/><ref name=imf2/> (71st)
HDI (2013)Steady 0.774<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
high · 61st
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Calling code +961<ref name="cia"/>
ISO 3166 code LB
Internet TLD .lb
a. Article 11 of the Constitution of Lebanon states: "Arabic is the official national language. A law determines the cases in which the French language is to be used."

Lebanon ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Arabic: لبنان‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Libnān or Lubnān; Lebanese Arabic: [lɪbˈneːn]; Aramaic: לבנאן‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}; French: Liban{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), officially the Lebanese Republic<ref group="nb">Republic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies. The phrase Lebanese Republic is a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Lebanese Arabic is the most common language spoken among the citizens of Lebanon.</ref> (Arabic: الجمهورية اللبنانية‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} al-Jumhūrīyah al-Lubnānīyah; Lebanese Arabic: [elˈʒʊmhuːɾɪjje l.ˈlɪbneːnɪjje]; French: République libanaise{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history.<ref name="byblos">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdom, a maritime culture that flourished for over a thousand years (c. 1550–539 BC). In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, and eventually became one of the Empire's leading centers of Christianity. In the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion and identity. However, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, a religious divide that would last for centuries. During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome. The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.

The region eventually came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918. Following the collapse of the Empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon were mandated to France. The French expanded the borders of Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing a unique political system

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{{#invoke:Redirect template|main}}that is, a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. Bechara El Khoury (independent Lebanon's first president), Riad El-Solh (Lebanon's first prime minister) and Emir Majid Arslan (Lebanon's first minister of defence) are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence. Foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon in 31 December 1946.<ref name="dos-2011-12-01">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Lebanon is a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie since 1973.

Before the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the country experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, agriculture, commerce, and banking.<ref name="dos-2010-03-22">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Because of its financial power and diversity in its heyday, Lebanon was compared to Switzerland,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> and its capital Beirut attracted so many tourists that it was known as "the Paris of the Middle East".<ref name="tourism">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> At the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild national infrastructure.<ref name="Canada"/>

Etymology

The name Lebanon originates from the Semitic root lbn (لبن{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), meaning "white," which is likely a reference to the snow-capped Mount Lebanon.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Occurrences of the name have been found in different texts from the library of Ebla,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> which date to the third millennium BC, nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh (perhaps as early as 2100 BC).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L. <ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Lebanon sections
Intro  History  Geography  Environmental issues  Government and politics  Economy  Demographics  Culture  Education  Health  See also  Notes  References  Bibliography  [[Lebanon?section=Further</a>_reading|Further</a> reading]]  External links  

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