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Executives <ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Executives are energetic, outgoing, and competitive. They can be visionary, hard-working, and decisive. However, managers need to be aware of unsuccessful executives who once showed management potential but who are later dismissed or retired early. They typically fail because of personality factors rather than job performances.

Terms fallacies in their thinking are:

  • Unrealistic optimism fallacy: Believing they are so smart that they can do whatever they want
  • Egocentrism fallacy: Believing they are the only ones who matter, that the people who work for them don't count
  • Omniscience fallacy: Believing they know everything and seeing no limits to their knowledge
  • Omnipotence fallacy: Believing they are all powerful and therefore entitled to do what they want
  • Invulnerability fallacy: Believing they can get away with doing what they want because they are too clever to get caught; even if they are caught, believing they will go unpunished because of their importance.

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