New Testament::Kingship and kingdom of God


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New Testament The Gospel of Luke records Jesus' description of the Kingdom of God, "The kingdom of God does not come with observation; ... For indeed, the kingdom of God is within you."<ref>Luke 17:20-21 NKJV</ref> The Apostle Paul defined the Kingdom of God in his letter to the church in Rome: "For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking, but of righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit."<ref>Romans 14:17 NIV</ref>

In the Gospels, especially the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus speaks frequently of God's kingdom. However, Jesus never defines the concept.<ref name="Ladd_45">George Eldon Ladd, The Presence of the Future: The Eschatology of Biblical Realism, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids: 1974), 45.</ref> "He assumed this was a concept so familiar that it did not require definition."<ref name="Ladd_45"/> The Kingdom of God (and its possibly equivalent form Kingdom of Heaven in the Gospel of Matthew) is one of the key elements of the teachings of Jesus in the New Testament.<ref name="France101"/> Drawing on Old Testament teachings, the Christian characterization of the relationship between God and humanity inherently involves the notion of the "Kingship of God".<ref name=Mercer490>Mercer Dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Edgar V. McKnight and Roger A. Bullard (May 1, 2001) ISBN 0865543739 page 490</ref><ref name=Image478/>

Most of the uses of the Greek word basileia (kingdom) in the New Testament involve Kingdom of God (or Kingdom of Heaven).<ref>Theology for the Community of God by Stanley J. Grenz (Jan 31, 2000) ISBN 0802847552 page 473</ref> Matthew is likely to have instead used the term heaven because the background of his Jewish audience imposed restrictions on the frequent use of the name of God.<ref>Matthew by David L. Turner (Apr 15, 2008) ISBN 0801026849 page 41</ref> However, Dr. Chuck Missler asserts that Matthew intentionally differentiated between the kingdoms of God and Heaven: "Most commentators presume that these terms are synonymous. However, Matthew uses Kingdom of Heaven 33 times, but also uses Kingdom of God five times, even in adjacent verses, which indicates that these are not synonymous: he is using a more denotative term." <ref>Missler, Chuck. A Kingdom Perspective</ref> Kingdom of God is translated to Latin as Regnum Dei and Kingdom of Heaven as Regnum caelorum.<ref>A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin by John F. Collins (Aug 1985) ISBN 0813206677 page 176</ref>

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