Phonology::Khwe language


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Phonology Khwe has 70 phonemic consonants, including 35 clicks, as well as 25 vowel phonemes, including diphthongs and nasalized vowels. Khwe's tone system has been analyzed as containing 9 syllabic tones (3 register and 6 contour),<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> although more recent proposed analyses identify only 3 lexical tones, high, mid and low, with the mora as the basic unit of phonological structure.<ref name=":2">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Khoe click inventories generally combine four anterior constrictions types with nine to eleven anterior constrictions. The exact size of the click inventory in Khwe is unclear. Köhler established an inventory of 36 click phonemes, from combinations of four influxes and nine effluxes, as well as a borrowed voiced alveolar click, ⟨ǃ̬⟩. Kilian-Hatz identifies only 32 phonemic segments, due to gaps in the alveolar click type series, with Khwe being the only language to have a pre-nasalized voiced click.<ref name=":2" /><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Clicks occur exclusively in initial position on grammatical morphemes and lexical roots.

Click Description
ǂʰ aspirated
ǂ tenuis
ᶢǂ voiced
[ᵑ!] voiced nasal click
ŋᶢǂ prenasalized
ᵑǂˀ glottalized nasal
ǂ͡q linguo-pulmonic
ǂ͡χ linguo-pulmonic fricative
ǂ͡χʼ linguo-glottalic fricative

Khwe language sections
Intro   Classification   History   Distribution   Phonology   Morphology   References  External links  

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