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This article deals with the historical concept. For the modern-day religious movement see Messianic Judaism.

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Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, were the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.<ref name ="Freeddman">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In the earliest stage the community was made up of all those Jews who accepted Jesus as a venerable person or even the Messiah. As Christianity grew and evolved, Jewish Christians became only one strand of the early Christian community, characterised by combining the confession of Jesus as Christ with continued adherence to Jewish traditions such as Sabbath observance, observance of the Jewish calendar, observance of Jewish laws and customs, circumcision, and synagogue attendance, and by a direct genetic relationship to the earliest Jewish Christians.<ref name ="Freeddman"/>

The term "Jewish Christian" appears in historical texts contrasting Christians of Jewish origin with Gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament church<ref>Theological dictionary of the New Testament 1972 p568 Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey William Bromiley, Gerhard Friedrich "When the Jewish Christians whom James sent from Jerusalem arrived at Antioch, Cephas withdrew from table-fellowship with the Gentile Christians:"</ref><ref>Cynthia White The emergence of Christianity 2007 p36 "In these early days of the church in Jerusalem there was a growing antagonism between the Greek-speaking Hellenized Jewish Christians and the Aramaic-speaking Jewish Christians"</ref> and the second and following centuries.<ref>Michele Murray Playing a Jewish game: Gentile Christian Judaizing in the first and Second Centuries CE, Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion - 2004 p97 "Justin is obviously frustrated by continued law observance by Gentile Christians; to impede the spread of the phenomenon, he declares that he does not approve of Jewish Christians who attempt to influence Gentile Christians "to be.. "</ref> It is also a term used for Jews who converted to Christianity but kept their Jewish heritage and traditions.

Alister McGrath, former Professor of Historical Theology at Oxford University, claims that many 1st century "Jewish Christians" were totally faithful religious Jews. They differed from other contemporary Jews only in their acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah.<ref>McGrath, Alister E., Christianity: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1-4051-0899-1. Page 174: "In effect, they [Jewish Christians] seemed to regard Christianity as an affirmation of every aspect of contemporary Judaism, with the addition of one extra belief — that Jesus was the Messiah. Unless males were circumcised, they could not be saved (Acts 15:1)."</ref> Those that taught that Gentile converts to Christianity ought to adopt more Jewish practices than the Church had already included, however, were called "Judaizers".<ref name=Damick2011>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> Though the Apostle Peter was initially sympathetic, the Apostle Paul opposed the teaching at the Incident at Antioch (Gal. 2:11-21) and at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:6-35), where Paul's teaching was accepted by the whole Church.<ref name=Damick2011 /> Nevertheless, Judaizing continued for several centuries, particularly among Jewish Christians.<ref name=Damick2011 />

As Christianity grew throughout the Gentile world, Christians diverged from their Jewish and Jerusalem roots.<ref>Keith Akers, The lost religion of Jesus: simple living and nonviolence in early Christianity, Lantern Books, 2000 p. 21</ref><ref>Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN 0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190-192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33–34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;</ref> Jewish Christianity, initially strengthened despite persecution by Jerusalem Temple officials,{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} fell into decline during the Jewish-Roman wars (66-135) and the growing anti-Judaism perhaps best personified by Marcion (c. 150). With persecution by the orthodox Christians from the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century, Jewish Christians sought refuge outside the boundaries of the Empire, in Arabia and further afield.<ref>Küng, Hans (2008), "Islam: Past, Present and Future" (One World Publications)</ref> Within the Empire and later elsewhere it was dominated by the Gentile based Christianity which became the State church of the Roman Empire and which took control of sites in the Holy Land such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Cenacle and appointed subsequent Bishops of Jerusalem.


Jewish Christian sections
Intro   Related terms   Jewish origin of Christianity  The Council of Jerusalem and other developments  Communities whose origins reflect both Judaism and early Christianity  Contemporary movements  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

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This article deals with the historical concept. For the modern-day religious movement see Messianic Judaism.

{{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}}


Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, were the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.<ref name ="Freeddman">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In the earliest stage the community was made up of all those Jews who accepted Jesus as a venerable person or even the Messiah. As Christianity grew and evolved, Jewish Christians became only one strand of the early Christian community, characterised by combining the confession of Jesus as Christ with continued adherence to Jewish traditions such as Sabbath observance, observance of the Jewish calendar, observance of Jewish laws and customs, circumcision, and synagogue attendance, and by a direct genetic relationship to the earliest Jewish Christians.<ref name ="Freeddman"/>

The term "Jewish Christian" appears in historical texts contrasting Christians of Jewish origin with Gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament church<ref>Theological dictionary of the New Testament 1972 p568 Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey William Bromiley, Gerhard Friedrich "When the Jewish Christians whom James sent from Jerusalem arrived at Antioch, Cephas withdrew from table-fellowship with the Gentile Christians:"</ref><ref>Cynthia White The emergence of Christianity 2007 p36 "In these early days of the church in Jerusalem there was a growing antagonism between the Greek-speaking Hellenized Jewish Christians and the Aramaic-speaking Jewish Christians"</ref> and the second and following centuries.<ref>Michele Murray Playing a Jewish game: Gentile Christian Judaizing in the first and Second Centuries CE, Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion - 2004 p97 "Justin is obviously frustrated by continued law observance by Gentile Christians; to impede the spread of the phenomenon, he declares that he does not approve of Jewish Christians who attempt to influence Gentile Christians "to be.. "</ref> It is also a term used for Jews who converted to Christianity but kept their Jewish heritage and traditions.

Alister McGrath, former Professor of Historical Theology at Oxford University, claims that many 1st century "Jewish Christians" were totally faithful religious Jews. They differed from other contemporary Jews only in their acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah.<ref>McGrath, Alister E., Christianity: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1-4051-0899-1. Page 174: "In effect, they [Jewish Christians] seemed to regard Christianity as an affirmation of every aspect of contemporary Judaism, with the addition of one extra belief — that Jesus was the Messiah. Unless males were circumcised, they could not be saved (Acts 15:1)."</ref> Those that taught that Gentile converts to Christianity ought to adopt more Jewish practices than the Church had already included, however, were called "Judaizers".<ref name=Damick2011>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> Though the Apostle Peter was initially sympathetic, the Apostle Paul opposed the teaching at the Incident at Antioch (Gal. 2:11-21) and at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:6-35), where Paul's teaching was accepted by the whole Church.<ref name=Damick2011 /> Nevertheless, Judaizing continued for several centuries, particularly among Jewish Christians.<ref name=Damick2011 />

As Christianity grew throughout the Gentile world, Christians diverged from their Jewish and Jerusalem roots.<ref>Keith Akers, The lost religion of Jesus: simple living and nonviolence in early Christianity, Lantern Books, 2000 p. 21</ref><ref>Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN 0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190-192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33–34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN 0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;</ref> Jewish Christianity, initially strengthened despite persecution by Jerusalem Temple officials,{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} fell into decline during the Jewish-Roman wars (66-135) and the growing anti-Judaism perhaps best personified by Marcion (c. 150). With persecution by the orthodox Christians from the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century, Jewish Christians sought refuge outside the boundaries of the Empire, in Arabia and further afield.<ref>Küng, Hans (2008), "Islam: Past, Present and Future" (One World Publications)</ref> Within the Empire and later elsewhere it was dominated by the Gentile based Christianity which became the State church of the Roman Empire and which took control of sites in the Holy Land such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Cenacle and appointed subsequent Bishops of Jerusalem.


Jewish Christian sections
Intro   Related terms   Jewish origin of Christianity  The Council of Jerusalem and other developments  Communities whose origins reflect both Judaism and early Christianity  Contemporary movements  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Related terms
<<>>