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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown=|ignoreblank=y | name | official_name | native_name | native_name_lang | other_name | settlement_type | type | translit_lang1 | translit_lang1_type1 | translit_lang1_type | translit_lang1_info | translit_lang1_type2 | translit_lang1_info1 | translit_lang1_type3 | translit_lang1_info2 | translit_lang1_type4 | translit_lang1_info3 | translit_lang1_type5 | translit_lang1_info4 | translit_lang1_type6 | translit_lang1_info5 | translit_lang1_info6 | translit_lang2 | translit_lang2_type1 | translit_lang2_type | translit_lang2_info | translit_lang2_type2 | translit_lang2_info1 | translit_lang2_type3 | translit_lang2_info2 | translit_lang2_type4 | translit_lang2_info3 | translit_lang2_type5 | translit_lang2_info4 | 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p34 | p35 | p36 | p37 | p38 | p39 | p40 | p41 | p42 | p43 | p44 | p45 | p46 | p47 | p48 | p49 | p50 | government_type | governing_body | leader_name | leader_name1 | leader_name2 | leader_name3 | leader_name4 | government_footnotes | leader_title | leader_party | leader_title1 | leader_title2 | leader_title3 | leader_title4 | area_total_km2 | area_total_ha | area_total_acre | area_total_sq_mi | area_total_dunam | area_land_km2 | area_land_ha | area_land_acre | area_land_sq_mi | area_water_km2 | area_water_ha | area_water_acre | area_water_sq_mi | area_urban_km2 | area_urban_ha | area_urban_acre | area_urban_sq_mi | area_rural_sq_mi | area_rural_ha | area_rural_acre | area_rural_km2 | area_metro_km2 | area_metro_ha | area_metro_acre | area_blank1_km2 | area_blank1_ha | area_blank1_acre | area_metro_sq_mi | area_blank1_sq_mi | total_type | area_footnotes | dunam_link | unit_pref | area_magnitude | area_land_dunam | area_water_dunam | area_water_percent | area_urban_footnotes | area_urban_dunam | area_rural_footnotes | area_rural_dunam | area_metro_footnotes | area_metro_dunam | area_rank | area_blank1_title | area_blank1_dunam | area_blank2_title | area_blank2_km2 | area_blank2_ha | area_blank2_acre | area_blank2_sq_mi | area_blank2_dunam | area_note | length_km | length_mi | width_km | width_mi | dimensions_footnotes | elevation_footnotes | elevation_point | elevation_m | elevation_ft | elevation_max_footnotes | elevation_max_point | elevation_max_m | elevation_max_ft | elevation_max_rank | elevation_min_rank | elevation_min_footnotes | elevation_min_point | elevation_min_m | elevation_min_ft | population_metro | population_urban | population_rural | population_as_of | population_footnotes | population_blank1 | population_blank2 | population_est | pop_est_as_of | pop_est_footnotes | population_rank | population_density_km2 | population_density_sq_mi | population_density_rank | population_urban_footnotes | population_density_urban_km2 | population_density_urban_sq_mi | population_rural_footnotes | population_density_rural_km2 | population_density_rural_sq_mi | population_metro_footnotes | population_density_metro_km2 | population_density_metro_sq_mi | population_blank1_title | population_blank1_footnotes | population_density_blank1_km2 | population_density_blank1_sq_mi | population_blank2_title | population_blank2_footnotes | population_density_blank2_km2 | population_density_blank2_sq_mi | population_note | population_demonym | demographics_type1 | demographics1_footnotes | demographics1_title1 | demographics1_info1 | demographics1_title2 | demographics1_info2 | demographics1_title3 | demographics1_info3 | demographics1_title4 | demographics1_info4 | demographics1_title5 | demographics1_info5 | demographics1_title6 | demographics1_info6 | demographics1_title7 | demographics1_info7 | demographics_type2 | demographics2_footnotes | demographics2_title1 | demographics2_info1 | demographics2_title2 | demographics2_info2 | demographics2_title3 | demographics2_info3 | demographics2_title4 | demographics2_info4 | demographics2_title5 | demographics2_info5 | demographics2_title6 | demographics2_info6 | demographics2_title7 | demographics2_info7 | timezone2 | timezone | timezone1 | utc_offset | utc_offset1 | utc_offset2 | timezone1_DST | timezone_DST | utc_offset1_DST | utc_offset_DST | timezone2_DST | utc_offset2_DST | postal_code_type | postal_code | postal2_code_type | postal2_code | area_code_type | area_code | geocode | iso_code | registration_plate | blank_name | blank_name_sec1 | blank_info | blank_info_sec1 | blank1_name | blank1_name_sec1 | blank1_info | blank1_info_sec1 | blank2_name | blank2_name_sec1 | blank2_info | blank2_info_sec1 | blank3_name | blank3_name_sec1 | blank3_info | blank3_info_sec1 | blank4_name | blank4_name_sec1 | blank4_info | blank4_info_sec1 | blank5_name | blank5_name_sec1 | blank5_info | blank5_info_sec1 | blank6_name | blank6_name_sec1 | blank6_info | blank6_info_sec1 | blank7_name | blank7_name_sec1 | blank7_info | blank7_info_sec1 | blank_name_sec2 | blank_info_sec2 | blank1_name_sec2 | blank1_info_sec2 | blank2_name_sec2 | blank2_info_sec2 | blank3_name_sec2 | blank3_info_sec2 | blank4_name_sec2 | blank4_info_sec2 | blank5_name_sec2 | blank5_info_sec2 | blank6_name_sec2 | blank6_info_sec2 | blank7_name_sec2 | blank7_info_sec2 | website | footnotes }} Jerusalem ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Hebrew: About this sound Yerushaláyim]]; Arabic: القُدس‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} About this sound al-Quds]]),[i] located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religionsJudaism, Christianity and Islam. Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.<ref name="Moment">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} According to Eric H. Cline’s tally in Jerusalem Besieged.</ref> The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE.<ref name="aice">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.

According to the Biblical tradition, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people.<ref name="1000BCE">Since the 10th century BCE:[v]

  • "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David seized the crown and united the twelve tribes from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7
  • "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3
  • "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7
  • "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6
  • "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.</ref> The sobriquet of holy city (עיר הקודש, transliterated ‘ir haqodesh) was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times.<ref>Reinoud Oosting, BRILL 2012 p. 117-118. Isaiah 48:2;51:1; Nehemiah 11:1,18; cf. Joel 4:17: Daniel 5:24. The Isaiah section where they occur belong to deutero-Isaiah.</ref><ref>Shalom M. Paul, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012 p.306. The ‘holiness’ (qodesh) arises from the temple in its midst, the root q-d-š referring to a sanctuary. The concept is attested in Mesopotamian literature, and the epithet may serve to distinguish Babylon, the city of exiles, from the city of the Temple, to where they are enjoined to return.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint<ref>Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία.</ref> which Christians adopted as their own authority,<ref>Joseph T. Lienhard,The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology, Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Chritians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.'</ref> was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.<ref name="3rd-holiest">Third-holiest city in Islam:

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|CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>Middle East peace plans by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina".</ref> In Islamic tradition in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat),<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran.<ref>Quran 17:1–3</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> As a result, despite having an area of only {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}},<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock, the Garden Tomb and al-Aqsa Mosque.

Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Israel's 1980 Basic Law the Jerusalem Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital and all branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, and the Supreme Court. The international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..."</ref> The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.

In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.<ref name="Population2011">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Jerusalem sections
Intro  Etymology  History  Political status  Municipal administration  Geography  Demographics  Religious significance  Culture  Media  Economy  Transportation  Education  Sports   Notable residents   Twin towns and sister cities  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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