Actions

::Japan

::concepts

Japan::title    Japanese::first    January::japan's    March::world    Percent::pages    Period::world

{{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use British English |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use mdy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

</tr>
      </tr>
</tr>
Japan
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Centered red circle on a white rectangle. Golden circle subdivided by golden wedges with rounded outer edges and thin black outlines.
Flag Imperial Seal
Anthem: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
</td> </tr>
Government Seal of Japan
{{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}</td> </tr>
        </td>
</tr>
Capital
and largest city</td>
Tokyo
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:35|41|N|139|46|E|type:city||

| |name=

}}
</td></tr>
Official languages None<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref></td>

</tr>
Recognised regional languages</td> {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}</td> </tr>
National language Japanese</td> </tr>
Ethnic groups (20110.4em)</td> {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}</td> </tr>
Demonym Japanese</td> </tr>
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy</td> </tr>
 - </td> Emperor</td> Akihito</td> </tr>
 - </td> Prime Minister</td> Shinzō Abe</td> </tr>
 - </td> Deputy Prime Minister</td> Tarō Asō</td> </tr>
Legislature National Diet</td> </tr>
 - </td> Upper house</td> House of Councillors</td> </tr>
 - </td> Lower house</td> House of Representatives</td> </tr>
Formation
 - </td> National Foundation Day</td> 11 February 660 BC<ref>According to legend, Japan was founded on this date by Emperor Jimmu, the country's first Emperor.</ref> </td> </tr>
 - </td> Meiji Constitution</td> November 29, 1890 </td> </tr>
 - </td> Current constitution</td> May 3, 1947 </td> </tr>
 - </td> San Francisco
Peace Treaty
</td>
April 28, 1952 </td> </tr>
Area
 - </td> Total</td> 377,944 km2<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> (62nd)
{{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} sq mi</td>

</tr>
 - </td> Water (%)</td> 0.8</td> </tr>
Population
 - </td> 2015 estimate</td> 126,919,659<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> (10th)</td>

</tr>
 - </td> 2010 census</td> 128,056,026<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref></td>

</tr>
 - </td> Density</td> 337.1/km2 (36th)
873.1/sq mi</td> </tr>
GDP (PPP)</td> 2015 estimate</td>
      </tr>
 - </td> Total</td> $4.843 trillion<ref name=imf2/> (4th)</td> </tr>
 - </td> Per capita</td> $38,216<ref name=imf2/> (29th)</td> </tr>
GDP (nominal)</td> 2015 estimate</td>
      </tr>
 - </td> Total</td> $4.210 trillion<ref name=imf2/> (3rd)</td> </tr>
 - </td> Per capita</td> $33,223<ref name=imf2/> (25th)</td> </tr>
Gini (2008)</td>37.6<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref>
medium · 76th</td>

</tr>
HDI (2013)</td>Decrease 0.890<ref name=HDI>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref>
very high · 17th</td>

</tr>
Currency Yen (¥) / En {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (JPY)</td> </tr>
Time zone JST (UTC+9)</td> </tr>
 - </td> Summer (DST)</td> not observed (UTC+9)</td> </tr>
Date format {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}</td> </tr>
Drives on the left</td> </tr>
Calling code +81</td> </tr>
ISO 3166 code JP</td> </tr>
Internet TLD .jp</td>
      </tr></table>

Japan ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Japanese: 日本{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Nippon or Nihon ; formally 日本国{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} About this sound Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. The kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", and Japan is often called the "Land of the Rising Sun".

Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area. Japan's population of 126 million is the world's tenth largest. Approximately 9.1 million people live in Tokyo,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> the capital city of Japan, which is the second largest city proper in the OECD. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the world's largest metropolitan area with over 35 million residents and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy.

Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly Imperial China, followed by periods of isolation, later from Western European influence, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was only ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. Nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection followed before the Meiji Emperor was restored as head of state in 1868 and the Empire of Japan was proclaimed, with the Emperor as a divine symbol of the nation. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since adopting its revised constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.

Japan is a member of the UN, the G7, the G8, and the G20. Japan is a great power.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Balance of Power">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} Accordingly, the great powers after the Cold War are Britain, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, and the United States p.59</ref><ref name="Joshua Baron">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The country has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world's fifth-largest exporter and fifth-largest importer. Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the world's eighth largest military budget,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index whose population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate of any country.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="haaretz.com">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Table A.17">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Japan ranked first in the Country Brand Index<ref>FutureBrand | News | FutureBrand launches the Country Brand Index 2014–15</ref> and is the highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index.<ref>Institute for Economics and Peace (2015). Global Peace Index 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015</ref>

Etymology

{{#invoke:main|main}}

The English word Japan possibly derives from the early Mandarin Chinese or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the Japanese name, 日本{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, which in Japanese is pronounced Nippon About this sound listen  or Nihon About this sound listen . Japanese people refer to themselves as Nihonjin (日本人?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}} and to their language as Nihongo (日本語?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}}.

From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, meaning "the Empire of Great Japan". Today the name Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku (日本国?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}} is used as a formal modern-day equivalent; countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku (?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, meaning "country", "nation" or "state".

The character nichi (?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}} means "sun" or "day"; hon (?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}} means "base" or "origin". The compound means "origin of the sun" or "sunrise" (from a Chinese point of view, the sun rises from Japan); it is a source for the popular Western description of Japan as the "Land of the Rising Sun". Before Nihon came into official use, Japan was known as Wa (?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}} or Wakoku (倭国?){{#invoke:Category handler|main}}.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The English word for Japan came to the West via early trade routes. The Old Mandarin or possibly early Wu Chinese (吳語) pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} 'Japan' is Zeppen

  1. REDIRECT

{{#invoke:Redirect template|main}}. The old Malay word for Japan, Jepang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect, probably Fukienese or Ningpo,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Malacca in the 16th century. Portuguese traders were the first to bring the word to Europe.<ref>C. R. Boxer, The Christian Century In Japan 1549–1650, University of California Press, 1951p. 11, 28—36, 49—51, ISBN 1-85754-035-2</ref> An early record of the word in English is in a 1565 letter, spelled Giapan.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Japan sections
Intro  History  Government and politics  Foreign relations and military  Administrative divisions  Geography  Economy  Demographics  Culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: History
<<>>