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Jamaica
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Out of Many, One People"
Anthem: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Capital
and largest city
Kingston
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Official languages English
National language Jamaican Patois (de facto)
Demonym Jamaican
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Sir Patrick Allen
 -  Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Declared 6 August 1962 
Area
 -  Total 10,991 km2 (166th)
4,244 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1.5
Population
 -  July 2015 estimate 2,950,210<ref name=WorldFactbook/> (139th)
 -  Density 252/km2 (49th)
656/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $25.317 billion<ref name="imf.org">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Per capita $9,199<ref name="imf.org"/>
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $15.569 billion<ref name="imf.org"/>
 -  Per capita $5,657<ref name="imf.org"/>
Gini (2004)45.5<ref name="wb-gini">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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medium
HDI (2013)Decrease 0.715<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high · 96th
Currency Jamaican dollar (JMD)
Time zone (UTC-5)
Drives on the left
Calling code +1-876
ISO 3166 code JM
Internet TLD .jm

Jamaica ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, comprising the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles. The island, {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} in area, lies about {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} south of Cuba, and {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} west of Hispaniola, the island containing the nation-states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Jamaica is the fifth-largest island country in the Caribbean.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Named Santiago{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, it remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered the island and renamed it Jamaica. Under British rule, Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, its plantation economy highly dependent on slaves imported from Africa, and later, on Chinese and Indian indentured labor. Full emancipation was granted to all slaves in 1838, with the country achieving independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

With 2.8 million people, Jamaica is the third most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, after the United States and Canada, and the fourth most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="jamcities">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Jamaicans are of predominately African descent, with significant European, Chinese, Indian, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in the U.K., the U.S., and Canada.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, currently Sir Patrick Allen. The head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica is Portia Simpson-Miller. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.<ref name="opm.gov.jm">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="BBCjamprofile">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>


Jamaica sections
Intro  Etymology  History  Government and politics  Geography and environment  Demographics  Religion  Culture  Education  Economy  Infrastructure  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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